Five percent carbon dioxide challenge: Valid analogue and marker of panic disorder?

William C. Sanderson, Scott Wetzler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

63 Scopus citations


The administration of 5% carbon dioxide (CO2) to patients with panic disorder (PD) induces a behavioral response similar to a naturally occurring panic attack. This article reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of this response. We conclude that the 5% CO2 challenge test is a valid and useful laboratory analogue of naturally occurring panic attacks, and shows promise as a marker to identify a subset of PD patients. Though further research on reliability, validity, and dose-response effects must be conducted, the CO2 challenge test provides important information regarding the phenomenology of panic states.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)689-701
Number of pages13
JournalBiological Psychiatry
Issue number7
StatePublished - Apr 1 1990


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biological Psychiatry

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