Background: Limited data exist on factors predicting prolonged survival in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients. We sought to identify patient characteristics and complications associated with prolonged survival. Methods: We conducted retrospective review of the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) database, including primary continuous-flow LVAD recipients, between May 2012 and March 2013. Patients were identified as having survived with a device in place after 3 years or not, conditional on having initially survived 6 months. Patients who received a transplant, underwent explant due to recovery, or were lost to follow-up before 3 years were excluded. Multivariate logistic regression evaluated perioperative factors and adverse events within 6 months associated with long survival. Results: Of 1,116 patients who survived past the initial 6 months, 725 (65%) survived beyond 3 years. On univariate analysis, long-term survivors were significantly younger, were less likely to be white, supported for destination therapy, have diabetes, solid-organ cancer, or take amiodarone. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with increased odds of death at 3 years included diabetes, amiodarone use, and developing stroke, gastrointestinal bleeding, hemolysis, or pump thrombosis within 6 months of implantation. Conclusions: Preoperative diabetes and amiodarone use were associated with poor long-term survival in LVAD recipients. Development of early complications of stroke, gastrointestinal bleeding, hemolysis, or pump thrombosis was also associated with poor long-term survival. Early diagnosis and treatment of these complications may improve survival in LVAD recipients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine