Extended survival of several organisms and amino acids under simulated martian surface conditions

A. P. Johnson, L. M. Pratt, T. Vishnivetskaya, S. Pfiffner, R. A. Bryan, E. Dadachova, L. Whyte, K. Radtke, E. Chan, S. Tronick, G. Borgonie, R. L. Mancinelli, L. J. Rothschild, D. A. Rogoff, D. D. Horikawa, T. C. Onstott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Recent orbital and landed missions have provided substantial evidence for ancient liquid water on the martian surface as well as evidence of more recent sedimentary deposits formed by water and/or ice. These observations raise serious questions regarding an independent origin and evolution of life on Mars. Future missions seek to identify signs of extinct martian biota in the form of biomarkers or morphological characteristics, but the inherent danger of spacecraft-borne terrestrial life makes the possibility of forward contamination a serious threat not only to the life detection experiments, but also to any extant martian ecosystem. A variety of cold and desiccation-tolerant organisms were exposed to 40. days of simulated martian surface conditions while embedded within several centimeters of regolith simulant in order to ascertain the plausibility of such organisms' survival as a function of environmental parameters and burial depth. Relevant amino acid biomarkers associated with terrestrial life were also analyzed in order to understand the feasibility of detecting chemical evidence for previous biological activity. Results indicate that stresses due to desiccation and oxidation were the primary deterrent to organism survival, and that the effects of UV-associated damage, diurnal temperature variations, and reactive atmospheric species were minimal. Organisms with resistance to desiccation and radiation environments showed increased levels of survival after the experiment compared to organisms characterized as psychrotolerant. Amino acid analysis indicated the presence of an oxidation mechanism that migrated downward through the samples during the course of the experiment and likely represents the formation of various oxidizing species at mineral surfaces as water vapor diffused through the regolith. Current sterilization protocols may specifically select for organisms best adapted to survival at the martian surface, namely species that show tolerance to radical-induced oxidative damage and low water activity environments. Additionally, any hypothetical martian ecosystems may have evolved similar physiological traits that allow sporadic metabolism during periods of increased water activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1162-1178
Number of pages17
JournalIcarus
Volume211
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2011

Fingerprint

organisms
amino acids
amino acid
acids
desiccation
drying
regolith
biomarkers
ecosystems
water
biomarker
damage
oxidation
ecosystem
experiment
metabolism
activity (biology)
mars
hazards
water vapor

Keywords

  • Exobiology
  • Mars
  • Photochemistry
  • Regoliths
  • Search for extraterrestrial life

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Johnson, A. P., Pratt, L. M., Vishnivetskaya, T., Pfiffner, S., Bryan, R. A., Dadachova, E., ... Onstott, T. C. (2011). Extended survival of several organisms and amino acids under simulated martian surface conditions. Icarus, 211(2), 1162-1178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2010.11.011

Extended survival of several organisms and amino acids under simulated martian surface conditions. / Johnson, A. P.; Pratt, L. M.; Vishnivetskaya, T.; Pfiffner, S.; Bryan, R. A.; Dadachova, E.; Whyte, L.; Radtke, K.; Chan, E.; Tronick, S.; Borgonie, G.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Rothschild, L. J.; Rogoff, D. A.; Horikawa, D. D.; Onstott, T. C.

In: Icarus, Vol. 211, No. 2, 02.2011, p. 1162-1178.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Johnson, AP, Pratt, LM, Vishnivetskaya, T, Pfiffner, S, Bryan, RA, Dadachova, E, Whyte, L, Radtke, K, Chan, E, Tronick, S, Borgonie, G, Mancinelli, RL, Rothschild, LJ, Rogoff, DA, Horikawa, DD & Onstott, TC 2011, 'Extended survival of several organisms and amino acids under simulated martian surface conditions', Icarus, vol. 211, no. 2, pp. 1162-1178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2010.11.011
Johnson AP, Pratt LM, Vishnivetskaya T, Pfiffner S, Bryan RA, Dadachova E et al. Extended survival of several organisms and amino acids under simulated martian surface conditions. Icarus. 2011 Feb;211(2):1162-1178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2010.11.011
Johnson, A. P. ; Pratt, L. M. ; Vishnivetskaya, T. ; Pfiffner, S. ; Bryan, R. A. ; Dadachova, E. ; Whyte, L. ; Radtke, K. ; Chan, E. ; Tronick, S. ; Borgonie, G. ; Mancinelli, R. L. ; Rothschild, L. J. ; Rogoff, D. A. ; Horikawa, D. D. ; Onstott, T. C. / Extended survival of several organisms and amino acids under simulated martian surface conditions. In: Icarus. 2011 ; Vol. 211, No. 2. pp. 1162-1178.
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