Expression of COX-2, Ki-67, cyclin D1, and p21 in endometrial endometrioid carcinomas

Q. Jackie Cao, Mark H. Einstein, Patrick S. Anderson, Carolyn D. Runowicz, Raluca Balan, Joan G. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

64 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

COX-2, the isoform of cyclooxygenase inducible by cytokines, mitogens, and growth factors, appears to play an important role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. In the colon, COX-2 overexpression results in cell cycle alterations, and NSAIDs have proven effective in cancer chemoprevention. HNPCC (hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer) is a clinically defined cancer susceptibility syndrome in which women are also at significantly increased risk for the development of endometrial carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate expression of COX-2 in benign and malignant endometrium in the context of other cell cycle and proliferation markers, including Ki-67, cyclin D1, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. Immunostains with COX-2, Ki-67, cyclin D1, and p21 antibodies were performed on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 40 cases: 10 benign (5 atrophic and 5 proliferative) endometria, 6 hyperplasias (complex without atypia), and 24 endometrioid carcinomas (9 well, 4 moderately, and 11 poorly differentiated). Ki-67 was positive in all proliferative and neoplastic endometria. Cyclin D1 and p21 were both overexpressed in endometrial hyperplasia and endometrioid carcinomas. COX-2 was negative in the nonneoplastic endometrium, stained minimally in the well-differentiated endometrioid carcinomas, and stained most strongly in the moderately and poorly differentiated endometrioid carcinomas. Because cyclin D1 may function as an oncogene, its effects may dominate the usual inhibitory effect of a rising p21. Alternatively, it has been shown that p21 can promote cell cycle function by stabilizing cell cycle complexes. The overexpression of COX-2 in poorly differentiated endometrioid carcinoma and lack of expression in hyperplasia and well-differentiated carcinoma suggests that in this form of cancer, COX-2 may play a role in tumor progression rather than tumor initiation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)147-154
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Volume21
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2002

Fingerprint

Endometrioid Carcinoma
Cyclin D1
Endometrial Neoplasms
Endometrium
Cell Cycle
Neoplasms
Hyperplasia
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
Endometrial Hyperplasia
Chemoprevention
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Cyclooxygenase 2
Mitogens
Oncogenes
Paraffin
Colonic Neoplasms
Formaldehyde
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Protein Isoforms
Colon

Keywords

  • COX-2
  • Cyclin D1
  • Endometrioid carcinoma
  • Endometrium
  • Ki-67
  • p21

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

Cite this

Cao, Q. J., Einstein, M. H., Anderson, P. S., Runowicz, C. D., Balan, R., & Jones, J. G. (2002). Expression of COX-2, Ki-67, cyclin D1, and p21 in endometrial endometrioid carcinomas. International Journal of Gynecological Pathology, 21(2), 147-154.

Expression of COX-2, Ki-67, cyclin D1, and p21 in endometrial endometrioid carcinomas. / Cao, Q. Jackie; Einstein, Mark H.; Anderson, Patrick S.; Runowicz, Carolyn D.; Balan, Raluca; Jones, Joan G.

In: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2002, p. 147-154.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cao, QJ, Einstein, MH, Anderson, PS, Runowicz, CD, Balan, R & Jones, JG 2002, 'Expression of COX-2, Ki-67, cyclin D1, and p21 in endometrial endometrioid carcinomas', International Journal of Gynecological Pathology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 147-154.
Cao QJ, Einstein MH, Anderson PS, Runowicz CD, Balan R, Jones JG. Expression of COX-2, Ki-67, cyclin D1, and p21 in endometrial endometrioid carcinomas. International Journal of Gynecological Pathology. 2002;21(2):147-154.
Cao, Q. Jackie ; Einstein, Mark H. ; Anderson, Patrick S. ; Runowicz, Carolyn D. ; Balan, Raluca ; Jones, Joan G. / Expression of COX-2, Ki-67, cyclin D1, and p21 in endometrial endometrioid carcinomas. In: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology. 2002 ; Vol. 21, No. 2. pp. 147-154.
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