PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children is commonly associated with minimal change disease and response to steroid therapy. Steroid-unresponsive nephrotic syndrome is often characterized by persistent proteinuria and progression to chronic kidney disease. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is the leading cause of steroid-unresponsive nephrotic syndrome in childhood. There is no uniformed consensus as to the treatment of steroid-unresponsive nephrotic syndrome. Advances in the pathogenesis, genetics and biomarkers or surrogate markers may be useful for the diagnosis and identification of patients with steroid-unresponsive nephrotic syndrome, severity of disease, progression and response to therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: This review is intended to describe some of the recent changes in the epidemiology of steroid-unresponsive nephrotic syndrome, in particular focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, its pathogenesis and alternative therapies. SUMMARY: Recent studies in both children and adults have shown an increase in the incidence of focal segmental sclerosis as a cause of steroid-unresponsive nephrotic syndrome. Advances in the pathogenesis and noninvasive methods of diagnosis may allow for the identification of steroid-responsive patients.
- Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
- Nephrotic syndrome
- Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome
- Steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health