Enterobacter sp. Strain SM1_HS2B Manifests Transient Elongation and Swimming Motility in Liquid Medium

Zhiyu Zhang, Haoming Liu, Hamid Karani, Jon Mallen, Weijie Chen, Arpan De, Sridhar Mani, Jay X. Tang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Many species of bacteria change their morphology and behavior under external stresses. In this study, we report transient elongation and swimming motility of a novel Enterobacter sp. strain, SM1_HS2B, in liquid broth under a standard growth condition. When growing in the Luria-Bertani medium, HS2B cells delay their cell division and elongate. Although transient over a few hours, the average cell length reaches over 10 times that of the stationary-state cells. The increase is also cumulative following repeated growth cycles stimulated by taking cells out of the exponential phase and adding them into fresh medium every 2 hours. The majority of the cells attain swimming motility during the exponential growth phase, and then they lose swimming motility over the course of several hours. Both daughter cells due to division of a long swimming cell retain the ability to swim. We confirm that the long HS2B cells swim with rigid-body rotation along their body axis. These findings based on microscopic observation following repeated cycles of growth establish HS2B as a prototype strain with sensitive dependence of size and motility on its physical and biochemical environment. IMPORTANCE Bacteria undergo morphological changes in order to cope with external stresses. Among the best-known examples are cell elongation and hyperflagellation in the context of swarming motility. The subject of this report, SM1_HS2B, is a hyperswarming strain of a newly identified species of enterobacteria, noted as Enterobacter sp. SM1. The key finding that SM1_HS2B transiently elongates to extreme length in fresh liquid medium offers new insights on regulation in bacterial growth and division. SM1_HS2B also manifests transient but vigorous swimming motility during the exponential phase of growth in liquid medium. These properties establish HS2B as a prototype strain with sensitive dependence of size and motility on its physical and biochemical environment. Such a dependence may be relevant to swarming behavior with a significant environmental or physiological outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMicrobiology Spectrum
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2022

Keywords

  • bacterial elongation
  • bacterial growth
  • bacterial motility
  • bacterial swarming
  • bacterial swimming
  • cell division
  • Enterobacter
  • flagella
  • flagellar
  • hyperswarmer
  • hyperswarming
  • septa
  • swarming
  • swimming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Ecology
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Genetics
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Cell Biology
  • Infectious Diseases

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