Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly heritable but genetically heterogeneous. The affected neural circuits and cell types remain unclear and may vary at different developmental stages. By analyzing multiple sets of human single cell transcriptome profiles, we found that ASD candidates showed enriched gene expression in neurons, especially in inhibitory neurons. ASD candidates were also more likely to be the hubs of the co-expressed module that is highly expressed in inhibitory neurons, a feature not detected for excitatory neurons. In addition, we found that upregulated genes in multiple ASD cortex samples were also enriched with genes highly expressed in inhibitory neurons, suggesting a potential increase of inhibitory neurons and an imbalance in the ratio between excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Furthermore, the downstream targets of several ASD candidates, such as CHD8, EHMT1 and SATB2, also displayed enriched expression in inhibitory neurons. Taken together, our analysis of single cell transcriptomic data suggest that inhibitory neurons may be the major neuron subtype affected by the disruption of ASD gene networks, providing single cell functional evidence to support the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) imbalance hypothesis.
- gene expression
- inhibitory neuron
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)