Enlarged pulmonary artery is predicted by vascular injury biomarkers and is associated with WTC-Lung Injury in exposed fire fighters: A casecontrol study

Edward J. Schenck, Ghislaine C. Echevarria, Francis G. Girvin, Sophia Kwon, Ashley L. Comfort, William N. Rom, David J. Prezant, Michael D. Weiden, Anna Nolan

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Abstract

Objectives: We hypothesise that there is an association between an elevated pulmonary artery/aorta (PA/A) and World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI). We assessed if serum vascular disease biomarkers were predictive of an elevated PA/A.

Design: Retrospective case-cohort analysis of thoracic CT scans of WTC-exposed firefighters who were symptomatic between 9/12/2001 and 3/10/2008. Quantification of vascular-associated biomarkers from serum collected within 200 days of exposure.

Setting: Urban tertiary care centre and occupational healthcare centre.

Participants: Male never-smoking firefighters with accurate pre-9/11 forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ≥75%, serum sampled ≤200 days of exposure was the baseline cohort (n=801). A subcohort (n=97) with available CT scans and serum biomarkers was identified. WTC-LI was defined as FEV1≤77% at the subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (n=34) and compared with controls (n=63) to determine the associated PA/A ratio. The subcohort was restratified based on PA/A≥0.92 (n=38) and PA/A<0.92(n=59) to determine serum vascular biomarkers that were predictive of this vasculopathy.

Outcome measures: The primary outcome of this study was to identify a PA/A ratio in a cohort of individuals exposed to WTC dust that was associated with WTC-LI. The secondary outcome was to identify serum biomarkers predictive of the PA/A ratio using logistic regression.

Results: PA/A≥0.92 was associated with WTC-LI, OR of 4.02 (95% CI 1.21 to 13.41; p=0.023) when adjusted for exposure, body mass index and age at CT. Elevated macrophage derived chemokine and soluble endothelial selectin were predictive of PA/A≥0.92, (OR, 95% CI 2.08, 1.05 to 4.11, p=0.036; 1.33, 1.06 to 1.68, p=0.016, respectively), while the increased total plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was predictive of not having PA/A≥0.92 (OR 0.88, 0.79 to 0.98; p=0.024).

Conclusions: Elevated PA/A was associated with WTC-LI. Development of an elevated PA/A was predicted by biomarkers of vascular disease found in serum drawn within 6 months of WTC exposure. Increased PA/A is a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of WTC-LI and warrants further study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere005575
JournalBMJ Open
Volume4
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

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Firefighters
Vascular System Injuries
Lung Injury
Pulmonary Artery
Aorta
Biomarkers
Serum
Vascular Diseases
Blood Vessels
Chemokine CCL22
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Selectins
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
Forced Expiratory Volume
Dust
Tertiary Care Centers
Body Mass Index
Cohort Studies
Thorax
Logistic Models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Enlarged pulmonary artery is predicted by vascular injury biomarkers and is associated with WTC-Lung Injury in exposed fire fighters : A casecontrol study. / Schenck, Edward J.; Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Girvin, Francis G.; Kwon, Sophia; Comfort, Ashley L.; Rom, William N.; Prezant, David J.; Weiden, Michael D.; Nolan, Anna.

In: BMJ Open, Vol. 4, No. 9, e005575, 2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schenck, Edward J. ; Echevarria, Ghislaine C. ; Girvin, Francis G. ; Kwon, Sophia ; Comfort, Ashley L. ; Rom, William N. ; Prezant, David J. ; Weiden, Michael D. ; Nolan, Anna. / Enlarged pulmonary artery is predicted by vascular injury biomarkers and is associated with WTC-Lung Injury in exposed fire fighters : A casecontrol study. In: BMJ Open. 2014 ; Vol. 4, No. 9.
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title = "Enlarged pulmonary artery is predicted by vascular injury biomarkers and is associated with WTC-Lung Injury in exposed fire fighters: A casecontrol study",
abstract = "Objectives: We hypothesise that there is an association between an elevated pulmonary artery/aorta (PA/A) and World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI). We assessed if serum vascular disease biomarkers were predictive of an elevated PA/A.Design: Retrospective case-cohort analysis of thoracic CT scans of WTC-exposed firefighters who were symptomatic between 9/12/2001 and 3/10/2008. Quantification of vascular-associated biomarkers from serum collected within 200 days of exposure.Setting: Urban tertiary care centre and occupational healthcare centre.Participants: Male never-smoking firefighters with accurate pre-9/11 forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ≥75{\%}, serum sampled ≤200 days of exposure was the baseline cohort (n=801). A subcohort (n=97) with available CT scans and serum biomarkers was identified. WTC-LI was defined as FEV1≤77{\%} at the subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (n=34) and compared with controls (n=63) to determine the associated PA/A ratio. The subcohort was restratified based on PA/A≥0.92 (n=38) and PA/A<0.92(n=59) to determine serum vascular biomarkers that were predictive of this vasculopathy.Outcome measures: The primary outcome of this study was to identify a PA/A ratio in a cohort of individuals exposed to WTC dust that was associated with WTC-LI. The secondary outcome was to identify serum biomarkers predictive of the PA/A ratio using logistic regression.Results: PA/A≥0.92 was associated with WTC-LI, OR of 4.02 (95{\%} CI 1.21 to 13.41; p=0.023) when adjusted for exposure, body mass index and age at CT. Elevated macrophage derived chemokine and soluble endothelial selectin were predictive of PA/A≥0.92, (OR, 95{\%} CI 2.08, 1.05 to 4.11, p=0.036; 1.33, 1.06 to 1.68, p=0.016, respectively), while the increased total plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was predictive of not having PA/A≥0.92 (OR 0.88, 0.79 to 0.98; p=0.024).Conclusions: Elevated PA/A was associated with WTC-LI. Development of an elevated PA/A was predicted by biomarkers of vascular disease found in serum drawn within 6 months of WTC exposure. Increased PA/A is a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of WTC-LI and warrants further study.",
author = "Schenck, {Edward J.} and Echevarria, {Ghislaine C.} and Girvin, {Francis G.} and Sophia Kwon and Comfort, {Ashley L.} and Rom, {William N.} and Prezant, {David J.} and Weiden, {Michael D.} and Anna Nolan",
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T1 - Enlarged pulmonary artery is predicted by vascular injury biomarkers and is associated with WTC-Lung Injury in exposed fire fighters

T2 - A casecontrol study

AU - Schenck, Edward J.

AU - Echevarria, Ghislaine C.

AU - Girvin, Francis G.

AU - Kwon, Sophia

AU - Comfort, Ashley L.

AU - Rom, William N.

AU - Prezant, David J.

AU - Weiden, Michael D.

AU - Nolan, Anna

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Objectives: We hypothesise that there is an association between an elevated pulmonary artery/aorta (PA/A) and World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI). We assessed if serum vascular disease biomarkers were predictive of an elevated PA/A.Design: Retrospective case-cohort analysis of thoracic CT scans of WTC-exposed firefighters who were symptomatic between 9/12/2001 and 3/10/2008. Quantification of vascular-associated biomarkers from serum collected within 200 days of exposure.Setting: Urban tertiary care centre and occupational healthcare centre.Participants: Male never-smoking firefighters with accurate pre-9/11 forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ≥75%, serum sampled ≤200 days of exposure was the baseline cohort (n=801). A subcohort (n=97) with available CT scans and serum biomarkers was identified. WTC-LI was defined as FEV1≤77% at the subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (n=34) and compared with controls (n=63) to determine the associated PA/A ratio. The subcohort was restratified based on PA/A≥0.92 (n=38) and PA/A<0.92(n=59) to determine serum vascular biomarkers that were predictive of this vasculopathy.Outcome measures: The primary outcome of this study was to identify a PA/A ratio in a cohort of individuals exposed to WTC dust that was associated with WTC-LI. The secondary outcome was to identify serum biomarkers predictive of the PA/A ratio using logistic regression.Results: PA/A≥0.92 was associated with WTC-LI, OR of 4.02 (95% CI 1.21 to 13.41; p=0.023) when adjusted for exposure, body mass index and age at CT. Elevated macrophage derived chemokine and soluble endothelial selectin were predictive of PA/A≥0.92, (OR, 95% CI 2.08, 1.05 to 4.11, p=0.036; 1.33, 1.06 to 1.68, p=0.016, respectively), while the increased total plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was predictive of not having PA/A≥0.92 (OR 0.88, 0.79 to 0.98; p=0.024).Conclusions: Elevated PA/A was associated with WTC-LI. Development of an elevated PA/A was predicted by biomarkers of vascular disease found in serum drawn within 6 months of WTC exposure. Increased PA/A is a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of WTC-LI and warrants further study.

AB - Objectives: We hypothesise that there is an association between an elevated pulmonary artery/aorta (PA/A) and World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI). We assessed if serum vascular disease biomarkers were predictive of an elevated PA/A.Design: Retrospective case-cohort analysis of thoracic CT scans of WTC-exposed firefighters who were symptomatic between 9/12/2001 and 3/10/2008. Quantification of vascular-associated biomarkers from serum collected within 200 days of exposure.Setting: Urban tertiary care centre and occupational healthcare centre.Participants: Male never-smoking firefighters with accurate pre-9/11 forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ≥75%, serum sampled ≤200 days of exposure was the baseline cohort (n=801). A subcohort (n=97) with available CT scans and serum biomarkers was identified. WTC-LI was defined as FEV1≤77% at the subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (n=34) and compared with controls (n=63) to determine the associated PA/A ratio. The subcohort was restratified based on PA/A≥0.92 (n=38) and PA/A<0.92(n=59) to determine serum vascular biomarkers that were predictive of this vasculopathy.Outcome measures: The primary outcome of this study was to identify a PA/A ratio in a cohort of individuals exposed to WTC dust that was associated with WTC-LI. The secondary outcome was to identify serum biomarkers predictive of the PA/A ratio using logistic regression.Results: PA/A≥0.92 was associated with WTC-LI, OR of 4.02 (95% CI 1.21 to 13.41; p=0.023) when adjusted for exposure, body mass index and age at CT. Elevated macrophage derived chemokine and soluble endothelial selectin were predictive of PA/A≥0.92, (OR, 95% CI 2.08, 1.05 to 4.11, p=0.036; 1.33, 1.06 to 1.68, p=0.016, respectively), while the increased total plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was predictive of not having PA/A≥0.92 (OR 0.88, 0.79 to 0.98; p=0.024).Conclusions: Elevated PA/A was associated with WTC-LI. Development of an elevated PA/A was predicted by biomarkers of vascular disease found in serum drawn within 6 months of WTC exposure. Increased PA/A is a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of WTC-LI and warrants further study.

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