Because of the altered anatomy, the presence of immunosuppression, the possibility of graft rejection, and the serious implications of a problem involving a solitary kidney, the transplanted kidney presents unique challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of urologic complications. Historically, the mortality rate in these patients has been as high as 68%, and as many as 15% of the allografts have been lost. Today, endourologic procedures are used for prompt diagnosis, temporization, and even definitive management of many urologic complications, and many patients and allografts are being saved. The authors review present techniques and suggest others that may be available in the future.
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