Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide II (EMAP-II) is a tumor-derived cytokine with potent effects on endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo including upregulation of tissue factor and the sensitization of human melanoma to systemic TNF treatment via its effects on the tumor vasculature. We investigated the effects of EMAP-II on tumor growth, angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and apoptosis. EMAP-II inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, vasculogenesis, and neovessel formation. In vivo growth of human melanoma lines expressing high amounts of EMAP-II demonstrated slower growth, smaller tumors, and increased amounts of tumor necrosis than those expressing lower amounts of EMAP-II. EMAP-II induced endothelial-cell-specific apoptosis via a pathway that includes upregulation of the Fas-associated death domain and downregulation of Bcl-2. EMAP-II appears to have important effects on angiogenesis and may play a role in regulating tumor vascular growth.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Cell Biology