Emphysematous cystitis is a rare complication of urinary tract infection. Patients with diabetes mellitus, neurogenic bladder, bladder outlet obstruction, and recurrent urinary tract infection are at increased risk for the disease. We present a case of emphysematous cystitis and pyelitis in a diabetic renal transplant recipient. He was treated with antibiotics alone with complete clinical and radiologic resolution. The clinical course was benign, as described in most patients. The prognosis of emphysematous cystitis is good after early diagnosis and prompt treatment with appropriate antibiotics, blood glucose control, and adequate urinary drainage.
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