Purpose: This study investigates the effect of constitutively raised interstitial fluid pressure on osteosarcoma physiology and chemosensitivity. Experimental Design: We did pressure and blood flow assessments at the time of open biopsy in patients with the diagnosis of high-grade osteosarcoma and correlated this to survival and chemotherapy-associated tumor necrosis. Osteosarcoma cell lines were then evaluated for proliferative and therapeutic indices in a replicated high-pressure environment. Results: Sixteen osteosarcomas in vivo were assessed and exhibited elevated interstitial fluid pressures (mean 35.2 ± SD, 18.6 mmHg). This was not associated with significantly impeded blood flow as measured by a Doppler probe at a single site (P < 0.12). Nonetheless, greater chemotherapy-associated necrosis and associated longer survival were seen in tumors with higher interstitial fluid pressures (P < 0.05). In vitro, cells undergo significant physiologic changes under pressure. Osteosarcoma cell lines grown in a novel hydrostatically pressurized system had variable cell line-specific growth proportional to the level of pressure. They were more proliferative as indicated by cell cycle analysis with more cells in S phase after 48 hours of pressurization (P < 0.01). There was a significant elevation in the cell cycle-related transcription factors E2F-1 (P < 0.03) and E2F-4 (P < 0.002). These changes were associated with increased chemosensitivity. Cells tested under pressure showed an increased sensitivity to cisplatin (P < 0.00006) and doxorubicin (P < 0.03) reminiscent of the increased chemotherapy-associated necrosis seen in tumors with higher interstitial fluid pressure in the clinical study. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cells in the in vivo pressurized environment are at a higher state of regenerative activity than is demonstrable in conventional cell culture systems. Variations in tumor interstitial fluid pressure have the potential to alter chemotherapeutic effects.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research