Elevated CSF outflow resistance associated with impaired lymphatic CSF absorption in a rat model of kaolin-induced communicating hydrocephalus

Gurjit Nagra, Mark E. Wagshul, Shams Rashid, Jie Li, J. Pat McAllister, Miles Johnston

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Abstract

Background: We recently reported a lymphatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption deficit in a kaolin model of communicating hydrocephalus in rats with ventricular expansion correlating negatively with the magnitude of the impediment to lymphatic function. However, it is possible that CSF drainage was not significantly altered if absorption at other sites compensated for the lymphatic defect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the lymphatic absorption deficit on global CSF absorption (CSF outflow resistance).Methods: Kaolin was injected into the basal cisterns of Sprague Dawley rats. The development of hydrocephalus was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In one group of animals at about 3 weeks after injection, the movement of intraventricularly injected iodinated human serum albumin (125I-HSA) into the olfactory turbinates provided an estimate of CSF transport through the cribriform plate into nasal lymphatics (n = 18). Control animals received saline in place of kaolin (n = 10). In a second group at about 3.5 weeks after kaolin injection, intraventricular pressure was measured continuously during infusion of saline into the spinal subarachnoid space at various flow rates (n = 9). CSF outflow resistance was calculated as the slope of the steady-state pressure versus flow rate. Control animals for this group either received no injections (intact: n = 11) or received saline in place of kaolin (n = 8).Results: Compared to saline injected controls, lateral ventricular volume in the kaolin group was significantly greater (0.087 ± 0.013 ml, n = 27 versus 0.015 ± 0.001 ml, n = 17) and lymphatic function was significantly less (2.14 ± 0.72% injected/g, n = 18 versus 6.38 ± 0.60% injected/g, n = 10). Additionally, the CSF outflow resistance was significantly greater in the kaolin group (0.46 ± 0.04 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 9) than in saline injected (0.28 ± 0.03 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 8) or intact animals (0.18 ± 0.03 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 11). There was a significant positive correlation between CSF outflow resistance and ventricular volume.Conclusions: The data suggest that the impediment to lymphatic CSF absorption in a kaolin-induced model of communicating hydrocephalus has a significant impact on global CSF absorption. A lymphatic CSF absorption deficit would appear to play some role (either direct or indirect) in the pathogenesis of ventriculomegaly.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4
JournalCerebrospinal Fluid Research
Volume7
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 10 2010

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Kaolin
Hydrocephalus
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Injections
Ethmoid Bone
Turbinates
Subarachnoid Space
Ventricular Pressure
Nose
Serum Albumin
Sprague Dawley Rats
Magnetic Resonance Imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Neurology
  • Developmental Neuroscience

Cite this

Elevated CSF outflow resistance associated with impaired lymphatic CSF absorption in a rat model of kaolin-induced communicating hydrocephalus. / Nagra, Gurjit; Wagshul, Mark E.; Rashid, Shams; Li, Jie; McAllister, J. Pat; Johnston, Miles.

In: Cerebrospinal Fluid Research, Vol. 7, 4, 10.02.2010.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Elevated CSF outflow resistance associated with impaired lymphatic CSF absorption in a rat model of kaolin-induced communicating hydrocephalus",
abstract = "Background: We recently reported a lymphatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption deficit in a kaolin model of communicating hydrocephalus in rats with ventricular expansion correlating negatively with the magnitude of the impediment to lymphatic function. However, it is possible that CSF drainage was not significantly altered if absorption at other sites compensated for the lymphatic defect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the lymphatic absorption deficit on global CSF absorption (CSF outflow resistance).Methods: Kaolin was injected into the basal cisterns of Sprague Dawley rats. The development of hydrocephalus was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In one group of animals at about 3 weeks after injection, the movement of intraventricularly injected iodinated human serum albumin (125I-HSA) into the olfactory turbinates provided an estimate of CSF transport through the cribriform plate into nasal lymphatics (n = 18). Control animals received saline in place of kaolin (n = 10). In a second group at about 3.5 weeks after kaolin injection, intraventricular pressure was measured continuously during infusion of saline into the spinal subarachnoid space at various flow rates (n = 9). CSF outflow resistance was calculated as the slope of the steady-state pressure versus flow rate. Control animals for this group either received no injections (intact: n = 11) or received saline in place of kaolin (n = 8).Results: Compared to saline injected controls, lateral ventricular volume in the kaolin group was significantly greater (0.087 ± 0.013 ml, n = 27 versus 0.015 ± 0.001 ml, n = 17) and lymphatic function was significantly less (2.14 ± 0.72{\%} injected/g, n = 18 versus 6.38 ± 0.60{\%} injected/g, n = 10). Additionally, the CSF outflow resistance was significantly greater in the kaolin group (0.46 ± 0.04 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 9) than in saline injected (0.28 ± 0.03 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 8) or intact animals (0.18 ± 0.03 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 11). There was a significant positive correlation between CSF outflow resistance and ventricular volume.Conclusions: The data suggest that the impediment to lymphatic CSF absorption in a kaolin-induced model of communicating hydrocephalus has a significant impact on global CSF absorption. A lymphatic CSF absorption deficit would appear to play some role (either direct or indirect) in the pathogenesis of ventriculomegaly.",
author = "Gurjit Nagra and Wagshul, {Mark E.} and Shams Rashid and Jie Li and McAllister, {J. Pat} and Miles Johnston",
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T1 - Elevated CSF outflow resistance associated with impaired lymphatic CSF absorption in a rat model of kaolin-induced communicating hydrocephalus

AU - Nagra, Gurjit

AU - Wagshul, Mark E.

AU - Rashid, Shams

AU - Li, Jie

AU - McAllister, J. Pat

AU - Johnston, Miles

PY - 2010/2/10

Y1 - 2010/2/10

N2 - Background: We recently reported a lymphatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption deficit in a kaolin model of communicating hydrocephalus in rats with ventricular expansion correlating negatively with the magnitude of the impediment to lymphatic function. However, it is possible that CSF drainage was not significantly altered if absorption at other sites compensated for the lymphatic defect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the lymphatic absorption deficit on global CSF absorption (CSF outflow resistance).Methods: Kaolin was injected into the basal cisterns of Sprague Dawley rats. The development of hydrocephalus was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In one group of animals at about 3 weeks after injection, the movement of intraventricularly injected iodinated human serum albumin (125I-HSA) into the olfactory turbinates provided an estimate of CSF transport through the cribriform plate into nasal lymphatics (n = 18). Control animals received saline in place of kaolin (n = 10). In a second group at about 3.5 weeks after kaolin injection, intraventricular pressure was measured continuously during infusion of saline into the spinal subarachnoid space at various flow rates (n = 9). CSF outflow resistance was calculated as the slope of the steady-state pressure versus flow rate. Control animals for this group either received no injections (intact: n = 11) or received saline in place of kaolin (n = 8).Results: Compared to saline injected controls, lateral ventricular volume in the kaolin group was significantly greater (0.087 ± 0.013 ml, n = 27 versus 0.015 ± 0.001 ml, n = 17) and lymphatic function was significantly less (2.14 ± 0.72% injected/g, n = 18 versus 6.38 ± 0.60% injected/g, n = 10). Additionally, the CSF outflow resistance was significantly greater in the kaolin group (0.46 ± 0.04 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 9) than in saline injected (0.28 ± 0.03 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 8) or intact animals (0.18 ± 0.03 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 11). There was a significant positive correlation between CSF outflow resistance and ventricular volume.Conclusions: The data suggest that the impediment to lymphatic CSF absorption in a kaolin-induced model of communicating hydrocephalus has a significant impact on global CSF absorption. A lymphatic CSF absorption deficit would appear to play some role (either direct or indirect) in the pathogenesis of ventriculomegaly.

AB - Background: We recently reported a lymphatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption deficit in a kaolin model of communicating hydrocephalus in rats with ventricular expansion correlating negatively with the magnitude of the impediment to lymphatic function. However, it is possible that CSF drainage was not significantly altered if absorption at other sites compensated for the lymphatic defect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the lymphatic absorption deficit on global CSF absorption (CSF outflow resistance).Methods: Kaolin was injected into the basal cisterns of Sprague Dawley rats. The development of hydrocephalus was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In one group of animals at about 3 weeks after injection, the movement of intraventricularly injected iodinated human serum albumin (125I-HSA) into the olfactory turbinates provided an estimate of CSF transport through the cribriform plate into nasal lymphatics (n = 18). Control animals received saline in place of kaolin (n = 10). In a second group at about 3.5 weeks after kaolin injection, intraventricular pressure was measured continuously during infusion of saline into the spinal subarachnoid space at various flow rates (n = 9). CSF outflow resistance was calculated as the slope of the steady-state pressure versus flow rate. Control animals for this group either received no injections (intact: n = 11) or received saline in place of kaolin (n = 8).Results: Compared to saline injected controls, lateral ventricular volume in the kaolin group was significantly greater (0.087 ± 0.013 ml, n = 27 versus 0.015 ± 0.001 ml, n = 17) and lymphatic function was significantly less (2.14 ± 0.72% injected/g, n = 18 versus 6.38 ± 0.60% injected/g, n = 10). Additionally, the CSF outflow resistance was significantly greater in the kaolin group (0.46 ± 0.04 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 9) than in saline injected (0.28 ± 0.03 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 8) or intact animals (0.18 ± 0.03 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 11). There was a significant positive correlation between CSF outflow resistance and ventricular volume.Conclusions: The data suggest that the impediment to lymphatic CSF absorption in a kaolin-induced model of communicating hydrocephalus has a significant impact on global CSF absorption. A lymphatic CSF absorption deficit would appear to play some role (either direct or indirect) in the pathogenesis of ventriculomegaly.

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