Elemental composition and water content of rat optic nerve myelinated axons during in vitro post-anoxia reoxygenation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

During transient hypoxic episodes, CNS nerve cells and their axons undergo structural and functional damage. However, additional injury occurs as a result of subsequent tissue reperfusion. To examine mechanisms of this secondary injury, we have characterized the temporal patterns of element (e.g. Na, K, Ca) and water deregulation in rat optic nerve myelinated axons and glia during in vitro exposure to post-anoxia reoxygenation. Isolated nerves were exposed to 1 h of anoxia followed by varying periods of reoxygenation (20, 40, 60 and 180 min). Changes in subcellular distribution of elements and water were determined using electron probe X-ray microanalysis. In response to reoxygenation, the majority of large and medium axons exhibited a progressive worsening of anoxia-induced elemental deregulation. Axoplasmic Na, Cl and Ca increased substantially while K concentrations remained at or slightly below anoxic levels. Respective mitochondria expressed similar elemental changes except that Ca levels increased dramatically. A limited number of large and medium axons and their mitochondria showed initial but transient improvements in elemental composition. In contrast, approximately 50% of small axons initiated early improvements in transmembrane elemental distribution that continued to advance throughout the reoxygenation period. Remaining axons of this group displayed severe elemental derangement similar to that of larger fibers. The elemental composition of reoxygenated glial cells and myelin remained comparable to that reported after 60 min of anoxia. These results indicate that while larger axons express eventual severe elemental deregulation in spite of reoxygenation, many small axons appear capable of re-establishing near-normal transmembrane ion gradients. Results of the present study suggest reoxygenation/reperfusion injury of CNS axons is mediated by exacerbation of Ca2+ entry and the generalized ion deregulation initiated during anoxic or ischemic episodes. These findings constitute basic information regarding damage induced by post-anoxia reoxygenation and could, therefore, contribute toward understanding the mechanism of reperfusion injury following hypoxic or ischemic episodes in CNS white matter. Furthermore, deciphering the route of Ca2+ influx during reoxygenation/reperfusion might provide a basis for rational design of effective pharmacotherapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1081-1090
Number of pages10
JournalNeuroscience
Volume73
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1996

Fingerprint

Optic Nerve
Axons
Water
Reperfusion Injury
Neuroglia
Reperfusion
Mitochondria
Ions
Electron Probe Microanalysis
Hypoxia
In Vitro Techniques
Wounds and Injuries
Myelin Sheath
Neurons
Drug Therapy

Keywords

  • anoxia
  • Ca
  • electron probe X-ray microanalysis
  • glial cells
  • Na Ca exchanger
  • reperfusion injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Elemental composition and water content of rat optic nerve myelinated axons during in vitro post-anoxia reoxygenation. / Stys, P. K.; LoPachin, Richard M.

In: Neuroscience, Vol. 73, No. 4, 08.1996, p. 1081-1090.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{f10df747e0f74dd2a3bf726db84cc726,
title = "Elemental composition and water content of rat optic nerve myelinated axons during in vitro post-anoxia reoxygenation",
abstract = "During transient hypoxic episodes, CNS nerve cells and their axons undergo structural and functional damage. However, additional injury occurs as a result of subsequent tissue reperfusion. To examine mechanisms of this secondary injury, we have characterized the temporal patterns of element (e.g. Na, K, Ca) and water deregulation in rat optic nerve myelinated axons and glia during in vitro exposure to post-anoxia reoxygenation. Isolated nerves were exposed to 1 h of anoxia followed by varying periods of reoxygenation (20, 40, 60 and 180 min). Changes in subcellular distribution of elements and water were determined using electron probe X-ray microanalysis. In response to reoxygenation, the majority of large and medium axons exhibited a progressive worsening of anoxia-induced elemental deregulation. Axoplasmic Na, Cl and Ca increased substantially while K concentrations remained at or slightly below anoxic levels. Respective mitochondria expressed similar elemental changes except that Ca levels increased dramatically. A limited number of large and medium axons and their mitochondria showed initial but transient improvements in elemental composition. In contrast, approximately 50{\%} of small axons initiated early improvements in transmembrane elemental distribution that continued to advance throughout the reoxygenation period. Remaining axons of this group displayed severe elemental derangement similar to that of larger fibers. The elemental composition of reoxygenated glial cells and myelin remained comparable to that reported after 60 min of anoxia. These results indicate that while larger axons express eventual severe elemental deregulation in spite of reoxygenation, many small axons appear capable of re-establishing near-normal transmembrane ion gradients. Results of the present study suggest reoxygenation/reperfusion injury of CNS axons is mediated by exacerbation of Ca2+ entry and the generalized ion deregulation initiated during anoxic or ischemic episodes. These findings constitute basic information regarding damage induced by post-anoxia reoxygenation and could, therefore, contribute toward understanding the mechanism of reperfusion injury following hypoxic or ischemic episodes in CNS white matter. Furthermore, deciphering the route of Ca2+ influx during reoxygenation/reperfusion might provide a basis for rational design of effective pharmacotherapies.",
keywords = "anoxia, Ca, electron probe X-ray microanalysis, glial cells, Na Ca exchanger, reperfusion injury",
author = "Stys, {P. K.} and LoPachin, {Richard M.}",
year = "1996",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1016/0306-4522(96)00114-5",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "73",
pages = "1081--1090",
journal = "Neuroscience",
issn = "0306-4522",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Elemental composition and water content of rat optic nerve myelinated axons during in vitro post-anoxia reoxygenation

AU - Stys, P. K.

AU - LoPachin, Richard M.

PY - 1996/8

Y1 - 1996/8

N2 - During transient hypoxic episodes, CNS nerve cells and their axons undergo structural and functional damage. However, additional injury occurs as a result of subsequent tissue reperfusion. To examine mechanisms of this secondary injury, we have characterized the temporal patterns of element (e.g. Na, K, Ca) and water deregulation in rat optic nerve myelinated axons and glia during in vitro exposure to post-anoxia reoxygenation. Isolated nerves were exposed to 1 h of anoxia followed by varying periods of reoxygenation (20, 40, 60 and 180 min). Changes in subcellular distribution of elements and water were determined using electron probe X-ray microanalysis. In response to reoxygenation, the majority of large and medium axons exhibited a progressive worsening of anoxia-induced elemental deregulation. Axoplasmic Na, Cl and Ca increased substantially while K concentrations remained at or slightly below anoxic levels. Respective mitochondria expressed similar elemental changes except that Ca levels increased dramatically. A limited number of large and medium axons and their mitochondria showed initial but transient improvements in elemental composition. In contrast, approximately 50% of small axons initiated early improvements in transmembrane elemental distribution that continued to advance throughout the reoxygenation period. Remaining axons of this group displayed severe elemental derangement similar to that of larger fibers. The elemental composition of reoxygenated glial cells and myelin remained comparable to that reported after 60 min of anoxia. These results indicate that while larger axons express eventual severe elemental deregulation in spite of reoxygenation, many small axons appear capable of re-establishing near-normal transmembrane ion gradients. Results of the present study suggest reoxygenation/reperfusion injury of CNS axons is mediated by exacerbation of Ca2+ entry and the generalized ion deregulation initiated during anoxic or ischemic episodes. These findings constitute basic information regarding damage induced by post-anoxia reoxygenation and could, therefore, contribute toward understanding the mechanism of reperfusion injury following hypoxic or ischemic episodes in CNS white matter. Furthermore, deciphering the route of Ca2+ influx during reoxygenation/reperfusion might provide a basis for rational design of effective pharmacotherapies.

AB - During transient hypoxic episodes, CNS nerve cells and their axons undergo structural and functional damage. However, additional injury occurs as a result of subsequent tissue reperfusion. To examine mechanisms of this secondary injury, we have characterized the temporal patterns of element (e.g. Na, K, Ca) and water deregulation in rat optic nerve myelinated axons and glia during in vitro exposure to post-anoxia reoxygenation. Isolated nerves were exposed to 1 h of anoxia followed by varying periods of reoxygenation (20, 40, 60 and 180 min). Changes in subcellular distribution of elements and water were determined using electron probe X-ray microanalysis. In response to reoxygenation, the majority of large and medium axons exhibited a progressive worsening of anoxia-induced elemental deregulation. Axoplasmic Na, Cl and Ca increased substantially while K concentrations remained at or slightly below anoxic levels. Respective mitochondria expressed similar elemental changes except that Ca levels increased dramatically. A limited number of large and medium axons and their mitochondria showed initial but transient improvements in elemental composition. In contrast, approximately 50% of small axons initiated early improvements in transmembrane elemental distribution that continued to advance throughout the reoxygenation period. Remaining axons of this group displayed severe elemental derangement similar to that of larger fibers. The elemental composition of reoxygenated glial cells and myelin remained comparable to that reported after 60 min of anoxia. These results indicate that while larger axons express eventual severe elemental deregulation in spite of reoxygenation, many small axons appear capable of re-establishing near-normal transmembrane ion gradients. Results of the present study suggest reoxygenation/reperfusion injury of CNS axons is mediated by exacerbation of Ca2+ entry and the generalized ion deregulation initiated during anoxic or ischemic episodes. These findings constitute basic information regarding damage induced by post-anoxia reoxygenation and could, therefore, contribute toward understanding the mechanism of reperfusion injury following hypoxic or ischemic episodes in CNS white matter. Furthermore, deciphering the route of Ca2+ influx during reoxygenation/reperfusion might provide a basis for rational design of effective pharmacotherapies.

KW - anoxia

KW - Ca

KW - electron probe X-ray microanalysis

KW - glial cells

KW - Na Ca exchanger

KW - reperfusion injury

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0029989742&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0029989742&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/0306-4522(96)00114-5

DO - 10.1016/0306-4522(96)00114-5

M3 - Article

C2 - 8809826

AN - SCOPUS:0029989742

VL - 73

SP - 1081

EP - 1090

JO - Neuroscience

JF - Neuroscience

SN - 0306-4522

IS - 4

ER -