Effect of n-3 fatty acids on free tryptophan and exercise fatigue

Derek M. Huffman, Thomas S. Altena, Thomas P. Mawhinney, Tom R. Thomas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Free tryptophan (Trp), which is augmented by liberated free fatty acids (FFA) from adipose tissue, can induce mental fatigue via serotonin during exercise. Since an attenuation in FFA has been observed with omega-3 fatty acid (n-3fa) use, our purpose was to examine the effect of n-3fa supplementation on free Trp availability and exercise fatigue. Ten recreationally trained men (n = 5) and women (n = 5), with maximal oxygen consumption (̇ VO2max)of 51.6 (3.0) and 44.3 (1.4) ml kg-1 min-1, respectively, were studied on two occasions following an overnight fast, before and after n-3fa supplementation (4 g day-1 for 4 weeks). The exercise trials consisted of a 75-min treadmill run at 60% ̇ VO2max followed immediately by a high-intensity incremental bout to fatigue. Measurements included exercise monitors, plasma volume (PV), triglycerides (TG), FFA, glycerol, lactate, and glucose. Free Trp and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) were measured and correlated with time to fatigue; all blood variables were corrected for PV. Free Trp, lactate, glucose, FFA, and glycerol were not significantly different between trials, but TG (P<0.001) and the free Trp/BCAA ratio were significantly lower after n-3fa use [1.76 (0.18) × 10-2 μg ml-1] versus before supplementation [2.17 (0.22), P = 0.0331. There was a non-significant increase in time to fatigue after supplementation [10.2 (0.3) min] versus before n-3fa use [9.7 (0.2), P = 0.068], and a tendency for higher BCAA levels after supplementation, P = 0.068. However, neither free Trp nor the free Trp/BCAA ratio significantly predicted time to fatigue. In conclusion, n-3fa supplementation did not diminish free Trp concentrations or significantly improve endurance performance during a maximal bout of exercise.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)584-591
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Volume92
Issue number4-5
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Tryptophan
Fatigue
Exercise
Branched Chain Amino Acids
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
Plasma Volume
Glycerol
Lactic Acid
Triglycerides
Mental Fatigue
Glucose
Oxygen Consumption
Adipose Tissue
Serotonin

Keywords

  • Branched-chain amino acids
  • Exercise
  • Fish oil
  • Free fatty acids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Physiology
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

Effect of n-3 fatty acids on free tryptophan and exercise fatigue. / Huffman, Derek M.; Altena, Thomas S.; Mawhinney, Thomas P.; Thomas, Tom R.

In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 92, No. 4-5, 08.2004, p. 584-591.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Huffman, Derek M. ; Altena, Thomas S. ; Mawhinney, Thomas P. ; Thomas, Tom R. / Effect of n-3 fatty acids on free tryptophan and exercise fatigue. In: European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2004 ; Vol. 92, No. 4-5. pp. 584-591.
@article{c8c4ee9712484137b3c97437629d7651,
title = "Effect of n-3 fatty acids on free tryptophan and exercise fatigue",
abstract = "Free tryptophan (Trp), which is augmented by liberated free fatty acids (FFA) from adipose tissue, can induce mental fatigue via serotonin during exercise. Since an attenuation in FFA has been observed with omega-3 fatty acid (n-3fa) use, our purpose was to examine the effect of n-3fa supplementation on free Trp availability and exercise fatigue. Ten recreationally trained men (n = 5) and women (n = 5), with maximal oxygen consumption (̇ VO2max)of 51.6 (3.0) and 44.3 (1.4) ml kg-1 min-1, respectively, were studied on two occasions following an overnight fast, before and after n-3fa supplementation (4 g day-1 for 4 weeks). The exercise trials consisted of a 75-min treadmill run at 60{\%} ̇ VO2max followed immediately by a high-intensity incremental bout to fatigue. Measurements included exercise monitors, plasma volume (PV), triglycerides (TG), FFA, glycerol, lactate, and glucose. Free Trp and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) were measured and correlated with time to fatigue; all blood variables were corrected for PV. Free Trp, lactate, glucose, FFA, and glycerol were not significantly different between trials, but TG (P<0.001) and the free Trp/BCAA ratio were significantly lower after n-3fa use [1.76 (0.18) × 10-2 μg ml-1] versus before supplementation [2.17 (0.22), P = 0.0331. There was a non-significant increase in time to fatigue after supplementation [10.2 (0.3) min] versus before n-3fa use [9.7 (0.2), P = 0.068], and a tendency for higher BCAA levels after supplementation, P = 0.068. However, neither free Trp nor the free Trp/BCAA ratio significantly predicted time to fatigue. In conclusion, n-3fa supplementation did not diminish free Trp concentrations or significantly improve endurance performance during a maximal bout of exercise.",
keywords = "Branched-chain amino acids, Exercise, Fish oil, Free fatty acids",
author = "Huffman, {Derek M.} and Altena, {Thomas S.} and Mawhinney, {Thomas P.} and Thomas, {Tom R.}",
year = "2004",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1007/s00421-004-1069-6",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "92",
pages = "584--591",
journal = "European Journal of Applied Physiology",
issn = "1439-6319",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",
number = "4-5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of n-3 fatty acids on free tryptophan and exercise fatigue

AU - Huffman, Derek M.

AU - Altena, Thomas S.

AU - Mawhinney, Thomas P.

AU - Thomas, Tom R.

PY - 2004/8

Y1 - 2004/8

N2 - Free tryptophan (Trp), which is augmented by liberated free fatty acids (FFA) from adipose tissue, can induce mental fatigue via serotonin during exercise. Since an attenuation in FFA has been observed with omega-3 fatty acid (n-3fa) use, our purpose was to examine the effect of n-3fa supplementation on free Trp availability and exercise fatigue. Ten recreationally trained men (n = 5) and women (n = 5), with maximal oxygen consumption (̇ VO2max)of 51.6 (3.0) and 44.3 (1.4) ml kg-1 min-1, respectively, were studied on two occasions following an overnight fast, before and after n-3fa supplementation (4 g day-1 for 4 weeks). The exercise trials consisted of a 75-min treadmill run at 60% ̇ VO2max followed immediately by a high-intensity incremental bout to fatigue. Measurements included exercise monitors, plasma volume (PV), triglycerides (TG), FFA, glycerol, lactate, and glucose. Free Trp and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) were measured and correlated with time to fatigue; all blood variables were corrected for PV. Free Trp, lactate, glucose, FFA, and glycerol were not significantly different between trials, but TG (P<0.001) and the free Trp/BCAA ratio were significantly lower after n-3fa use [1.76 (0.18) × 10-2 μg ml-1] versus before supplementation [2.17 (0.22), P = 0.0331. There was a non-significant increase in time to fatigue after supplementation [10.2 (0.3) min] versus before n-3fa use [9.7 (0.2), P = 0.068], and a tendency for higher BCAA levels after supplementation, P = 0.068. However, neither free Trp nor the free Trp/BCAA ratio significantly predicted time to fatigue. In conclusion, n-3fa supplementation did not diminish free Trp concentrations or significantly improve endurance performance during a maximal bout of exercise.

AB - Free tryptophan (Trp), which is augmented by liberated free fatty acids (FFA) from adipose tissue, can induce mental fatigue via serotonin during exercise. Since an attenuation in FFA has been observed with omega-3 fatty acid (n-3fa) use, our purpose was to examine the effect of n-3fa supplementation on free Trp availability and exercise fatigue. Ten recreationally trained men (n = 5) and women (n = 5), with maximal oxygen consumption (̇ VO2max)of 51.6 (3.0) and 44.3 (1.4) ml kg-1 min-1, respectively, were studied on two occasions following an overnight fast, before and after n-3fa supplementation (4 g day-1 for 4 weeks). The exercise trials consisted of a 75-min treadmill run at 60% ̇ VO2max followed immediately by a high-intensity incremental bout to fatigue. Measurements included exercise monitors, plasma volume (PV), triglycerides (TG), FFA, glycerol, lactate, and glucose. Free Trp and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) were measured and correlated with time to fatigue; all blood variables were corrected for PV. Free Trp, lactate, glucose, FFA, and glycerol were not significantly different between trials, but TG (P<0.001) and the free Trp/BCAA ratio were significantly lower after n-3fa use [1.76 (0.18) × 10-2 μg ml-1] versus before supplementation [2.17 (0.22), P = 0.0331. There was a non-significant increase in time to fatigue after supplementation [10.2 (0.3) min] versus before n-3fa use [9.7 (0.2), P = 0.068], and a tendency for higher BCAA levels after supplementation, P = 0.068. However, neither free Trp nor the free Trp/BCAA ratio significantly predicted time to fatigue. In conclusion, n-3fa supplementation did not diminish free Trp concentrations or significantly improve endurance performance during a maximal bout of exercise.

KW - Branched-chain amino acids

KW - Exercise

KW - Fish oil

KW - Free fatty acids

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=4544226377&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=4544226377&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s00421-004-1069-6

DO - 10.1007/s00421-004-1069-6

M3 - Article

VL - 92

SP - 584

EP - 591

JO - European Journal of Applied Physiology

JF - European Journal of Applied Physiology

SN - 1439-6319

IS - 4-5

ER -