Echinococcosis

Cystic and Alveolar Disease

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Within the genus Echinococcus, there are four species recognized: Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis, Echinococcus vogeli, and Echinococcus oligarthrus. The larval cestodes of all four species can develop in the human host and can cause various forms of hydatid disease. A fifth species, Echinococcus shiquicus, a tapeworm of Tibetan foxes, has recently been described, but there have been no infections reported in humans. Recent mitochondrial DNA studies have identified Echinococcus felidis as a distinct species. The adult worm resides in the African lion and the larval form is believed to occur in wild ungulates. To date, no cases have been reported in humans. This chapter focuses on disease caused by cystic echinococcus (CE) caused by E. granulosus and alveolar echinococcus (AE) caused by E. multilocularis. E. granulosus is made up of a number of biologically and genetically distinct entities that have been referred to as strains or subspecies. Classic CE is caused by the adult worm, E. granulosus, that resides in the jejunum of dogs and other canines (definitive hosts) and produces eggs that are passed in the stool. Eggs ingested by cows, sheep, moose, caribou, or humans (intermediate hosts) liberate an embryo in the duodenum, which passes through the intestinal mucosa to enter the portal circulation. Over 85% are filtered by the liver and lungs, where they lodge and develop into hydatid cysts. AE disease results from infection by E. multilocularis. Transmission to humans is usually through accidental ingestion of parasite eggs shed by dogs that had previously eaten an infected rodent. In humans, the metacestode (larval) form develops in the liver, proliferating indefinitely by exogenous budding, and invades the surrounding tissue, mimicking a malignancy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationNetter's Infectious Disease
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages491-501
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)9781437701265, 9781437701265
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 9 2011

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Echinococcus
Echinococcus granulosus
Echinococcus multilocularis
Eggs
Cestoda
Reindeer
Dogs
Lions
Alveolar echinococcosis
Liver
Echinococcosis
Jejunum
Intestinal Mucosa
Infection
Mitochondrial DNA
Duodenum
Canidae
Rodentia
Sheep
Parasites

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Coyle, C. M. (2011). Echinococcosis: Cystic and Alveolar Disease. In Netter's Infectious Disease (pp. 491-501). Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4377-0126-5.00082-3

Echinococcosis : Cystic and Alveolar Disease. / Coyle, Christina M.

Netter's Infectious Disease. Elsevier Inc., 2011. p. 491-501.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Coyle, CM 2011, Echinococcosis: Cystic and Alveolar Disease. in Netter's Infectious Disease. Elsevier Inc., pp. 491-501. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4377-0126-5.00082-3
Coyle, Christina M. / Echinococcosis : Cystic and Alveolar Disease. Netter's Infectious Disease. Elsevier Inc., 2011. pp. 491-501
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