Diterpene glycosides from Holothuria scabra exert the α-synuclein degradation and neuroprotection against α-synuclein-Mediated neurodegeneration in C. elegans model

Pawanrat Chalorak, Nilubon Sornkaew, Preeyanuch Manohong, Nakorn Niamnont, Nawaphat Malaiwong, Tanapol Limboonreung, Prasert Sobhon, Michael Aschner, Krai Meemon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Holothuria (Metriatyla) scabra Jaeger (H. scabra), sea cucumber, is the marine organism that has been used as traditional food and medicine to gain the health benefits since ancient time. Although our recent studies have shown that crude extracts from H. scabra exhibited neuroprotective effects against Parkinson's disease (PD), the underlying mechanisms and bioactive compounds are still unknown. Aim of the study: In the present study, we examined the efficacy of purified compounds from H. scabra and their underlying mechanism on α-synuclein degradation and neuroprotection against α-synuclein-mediated neurodegeneration in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans PD model. Material and methods: The H. scabra compounds (HSEA-P1 and P2) were purified and examined for their toxicity and optimal dose-range by food-clearance and lifespan assays. The α-synuclein degradation and neuroprotection against α-synuclein-mediated neurodegeneration were determined using transgenic C. elegans model, Punc-54::α-syn and Pdat-1:: α-syn; Pdat-1::GFP, respectively, and then further investigated by determining the behavioral assays including locomotion rate, basal slowing rate, ethanol avoidance, and area-restricted searching. The underlying mechanisms related to autophagy were clarified by quantitative PCR and RNAi experiments. Results: Our results showed that HSEA-P1 and HSEA-P2 significantly diminished α-synuclein accumulation, improved motility deficits, and recovered the shortened lifespan. Moreover, HSEA-P1 and HSEA-P2 significantly protected dopaminergic neurons from α-synuclein toxicity and alleviated dopamine-associated behavioral deficits, i.e., basal slowing, ethanol avoidance, and area-restricted searching. HSEA-P1 and HSEA-P2 also up-regulated autophagy-related genes, including beclin-1/bec-1, lc-3/lgg-1, and atg-7/atg-7. RNA interference (RNAi) of these genes in transgenic α-synuclein worms confirmed that lc-3/lgg-1 and atg-7/atg-7 were required for α-synuclein degradation and DAergic neuroprotection activities of HSEA-P1 and HSEA-P2. NMR and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the HSEA-P1 and HSEA-P2 contained diterpene glycosides. Conclusion: These findings indicate that diterpene glycosides extracted from H. scabra decreases α-synuclein accumulation and protects α-synuclein-mediated DAergic neuronal loss and its toxicities via lgg-1 and atg-7.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number114347
JournalJournal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume279
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 28 2021

Keywords

  • Caenorhabditis elegans
  • Diterpene glycoside
  • Dopaminergic neuron
  • Holothuria scabra
  • Parkinson's disease
  • α-synuclein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery

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