Distribution of chelonid fibropapillomatosis-associated herpesvirus variants in Florida

Molecular genetic evidence for infection of turtles following recruitment to neritic developmental habitats

Ada Ene, Mei Su, Shefali Lemaire, Corinne Rose, Susan Schaff, Richie Moretti, Jack Lenz, Lawrence H. Herbst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Marine turtle fibropapillomatosis is associated with chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (C-FP-HV) and commonly affects juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in neritic (nearshore) habitats. Green turtles have a complex life history, characterized by shifts in trophic level as well as habitat during ontogeny. Thus, several hypotheses can be proposed for when turtles become infected with C-FP-HV. They may acquire the virus at an early stage in the life cycle, including prenatal, hatchling, or the posthatchling pelagic stages. Alternatively, they may become infected later in life after they emigrate from the open ocean to neritic habitats. Each hypothesis generates predictions about the spatial distribution of genetic variants of C-FP-HV among nearshore sites within a region. Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified viral DNA from fibropapillomas of individual turtles was used to genotype the viral variants present in marine turtles from different coastal areas in Florida. We found four distinct virus variants (A, B, C, and D), two of which (A and C) were present in multiple turtle species. Green turtles in Florida were infected with variants A, B, and C. Variant A was found in green turtles from all three areas. Outside the Indian River Lagoon, variant A was most commonly detected and was found in >94% of diseased green turtles and 70% of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Florida Bay/Florida Keys. However, in the Indian River Lagoon, variant B was found in >94% of affected green turtles. Variant B was not detected outside of the Indian River system. Chi-square analysis strongly supported (P<0.001) an association between viral variant distribution in green turtles and location. On the basis of the assumption that juvenile green turtles found in Florida's west-central coast, Florida Keys, and Indian River Lagoon areas represented recruits from a mixed pelagic population, we expected that the distribution of viral variants in these turtles would be relatively homogeneous among locations; this would correspond to infection in the earlier phases of their life cycle. The heterogeneous distribution of viral variants in green turtle tumors from different Florida coastal locations strongly supports the hypothesis that, during epizootics, turtles are infected with specific C-FP-HV variants after they arrive as juveniles in neritic habitats. The conclusion that C-FP-HV is acquired after turtles recruit to nearshore habitats should help focus further research efforts on understanding the mechanisms of transmission and raises the possibility that the effect of fibropapilomatosis on turtle populations might be reduced by management strategies designed to break the cycle of transmission in these locations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)489-497
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Wildlife Diseases
Volume41
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2005

Fingerprint

Chelonid herpesvirus 5
Chelonia mydas
Turtles
Herpesviridae
turtle
molecular genetics
turtles
Ecosystem
Molecular Biology
habitat
Infection
habitats
infection
rivers
Caretta caretta
Rivers
distribution
lagoon
viruses
Life Cycle Stages

Keywords

  • C-FP-HV
  • Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus
  • Epidemiology
  • Fibro-papillomatosis
  • Florida
  • Green turtle
  • Herpesvirus
  • Loggerhead turtle
  • Marine turtle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Distribution of chelonid fibropapillomatosis-associated herpesvirus variants in Florida : Molecular genetic evidence for infection of turtles following recruitment to neritic developmental habitats. / Ene, Ada; Su, Mei; Lemaire, Shefali; Rose, Corinne; Schaff, Susan; Moretti, Richie; Lenz, Jack; Herbst, Lawrence H.

In: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Vol. 41, No. 3, 07.2005, p. 489-497.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{bbb658868c9a49d49ad8f9a7bd8e33dd,
title = "Distribution of chelonid fibropapillomatosis-associated herpesvirus variants in Florida: Molecular genetic evidence for infection of turtles following recruitment to neritic developmental habitats",
abstract = "Marine turtle fibropapillomatosis is associated with chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (C-FP-HV) and commonly affects juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in neritic (nearshore) habitats. Green turtles have a complex life history, characterized by shifts in trophic level as well as habitat during ontogeny. Thus, several hypotheses can be proposed for when turtles become infected with C-FP-HV. They may acquire the virus at an early stage in the life cycle, including prenatal, hatchling, or the posthatchling pelagic stages. Alternatively, they may become infected later in life after they emigrate from the open ocean to neritic habitats. Each hypothesis generates predictions about the spatial distribution of genetic variants of C-FP-HV among nearshore sites within a region. Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified viral DNA from fibropapillomas of individual turtles was used to genotype the viral variants present in marine turtles from different coastal areas in Florida. We found four distinct virus variants (A, B, C, and D), two of which (A and C) were present in multiple turtle species. Green turtles in Florida were infected with variants A, B, and C. Variant A was found in green turtles from all three areas. Outside the Indian River Lagoon, variant A was most commonly detected and was found in >94{\%} of diseased green turtles and 70{\%} of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Florida Bay/Florida Keys. However, in the Indian River Lagoon, variant B was found in >94{\%} of affected green turtles. Variant B was not detected outside of the Indian River system. Chi-square analysis strongly supported (P<0.001) an association between viral variant distribution in green turtles and location. On the basis of the assumption that juvenile green turtles found in Florida's west-central coast, Florida Keys, and Indian River Lagoon areas represented recruits from a mixed pelagic population, we expected that the distribution of viral variants in these turtles would be relatively homogeneous among locations; this would correspond to infection in the earlier phases of their life cycle. The heterogeneous distribution of viral variants in green turtle tumors from different Florida coastal locations strongly supports the hypothesis that, during epizootics, turtles are infected with specific C-FP-HV variants after they arrive as juveniles in neritic habitats. The conclusion that C-FP-HV is acquired after turtles recruit to nearshore habitats should help focus further research efforts on understanding the mechanisms of transmission and raises the possibility that the effect of fibropapilomatosis on turtle populations might be reduced by management strategies designed to break the cycle of transmission in these locations.",
keywords = "C-FP-HV, Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus, Epidemiology, Fibro-papillomatosis, Florida, Green turtle, Herpesvirus, Loggerhead turtle, Marine turtle",
author = "Ada Ene and Mei Su and Shefali Lemaire and Corinne Rose and Susan Schaff and Richie Moretti and Jack Lenz and Herbst, {Lawrence H.}",
year = "2005",
month = "7",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "41",
pages = "489--497",
journal = "Journal of Wildlife Diseases",
issn = "0090-3558",
publisher = "Wildlife Disease Association, Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Distribution of chelonid fibropapillomatosis-associated herpesvirus variants in Florida

T2 - Molecular genetic evidence for infection of turtles following recruitment to neritic developmental habitats

AU - Ene, Ada

AU - Su, Mei

AU - Lemaire, Shefali

AU - Rose, Corinne

AU - Schaff, Susan

AU - Moretti, Richie

AU - Lenz, Jack

AU - Herbst, Lawrence H.

PY - 2005/7

Y1 - 2005/7

N2 - Marine turtle fibropapillomatosis is associated with chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (C-FP-HV) and commonly affects juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in neritic (nearshore) habitats. Green turtles have a complex life history, characterized by shifts in trophic level as well as habitat during ontogeny. Thus, several hypotheses can be proposed for when turtles become infected with C-FP-HV. They may acquire the virus at an early stage in the life cycle, including prenatal, hatchling, or the posthatchling pelagic stages. Alternatively, they may become infected later in life after they emigrate from the open ocean to neritic habitats. Each hypothesis generates predictions about the spatial distribution of genetic variants of C-FP-HV among nearshore sites within a region. Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified viral DNA from fibropapillomas of individual turtles was used to genotype the viral variants present in marine turtles from different coastal areas in Florida. We found four distinct virus variants (A, B, C, and D), two of which (A and C) were present in multiple turtle species. Green turtles in Florida were infected with variants A, B, and C. Variant A was found in green turtles from all three areas. Outside the Indian River Lagoon, variant A was most commonly detected and was found in >94% of diseased green turtles and 70% of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Florida Bay/Florida Keys. However, in the Indian River Lagoon, variant B was found in >94% of affected green turtles. Variant B was not detected outside of the Indian River system. Chi-square analysis strongly supported (P<0.001) an association between viral variant distribution in green turtles and location. On the basis of the assumption that juvenile green turtles found in Florida's west-central coast, Florida Keys, and Indian River Lagoon areas represented recruits from a mixed pelagic population, we expected that the distribution of viral variants in these turtles would be relatively homogeneous among locations; this would correspond to infection in the earlier phases of their life cycle. The heterogeneous distribution of viral variants in green turtle tumors from different Florida coastal locations strongly supports the hypothesis that, during epizootics, turtles are infected with specific C-FP-HV variants after they arrive as juveniles in neritic habitats. The conclusion that C-FP-HV is acquired after turtles recruit to nearshore habitats should help focus further research efforts on understanding the mechanisms of transmission and raises the possibility that the effect of fibropapilomatosis on turtle populations might be reduced by management strategies designed to break the cycle of transmission in these locations.

AB - Marine turtle fibropapillomatosis is associated with chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (C-FP-HV) and commonly affects juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in neritic (nearshore) habitats. Green turtles have a complex life history, characterized by shifts in trophic level as well as habitat during ontogeny. Thus, several hypotheses can be proposed for when turtles become infected with C-FP-HV. They may acquire the virus at an early stage in the life cycle, including prenatal, hatchling, or the posthatchling pelagic stages. Alternatively, they may become infected later in life after they emigrate from the open ocean to neritic habitats. Each hypothesis generates predictions about the spatial distribution of genetic variants of C-FP-HV among nearshore sites within a region. Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified viral DNA from fibropapillomas of individual turtles was used to genotype the viral variants present in marine turtles from different coastal areas in Florida. We found four distinct virus variants (A, B, C, and D), two of which (A and C) were present in multiple turtle species. Green turtles in Florida were infected with variants A, B, and C. Variant A was found in green turtles from all three areas. Outside the Indian River Lagoon, variant A was most commonly detected and was found in >94% of diseased green turtles and 70% of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Florida Bay/Florida Keys. However, in the Indian River Lagoon, variant B was found in >94% of affected green turtles. Variant B was not detected outside of the Indian River system. Chi-square analysis strongly supported (P<0.001) an association between viral variant distribution in green turtles and location. On the basis of the assumption that juvenile green turtles found in Florida's west-central coast, Florida Keys, and Indian River Lagoon areas represented recruits from a mixed pelagic population, we expected that the distribution of viral variants in these turtles would be relatively homogeneous among locations; this would correspond to infection in the earlier phases of their life cycle. The heterogeneous distribution of viral variants in green turtle tumors from different Florida coastal locations strongly supports the hypothesis that, during epizootics, turtles are infected with specific C-FP-HV variants after they arrive as juveniles in neritic habitats. The conclusion that C-FP-HV is acquired after turtles recruit to nearshore habitats should help focus further research efforts on understanding the mechanisms of transmission and raises the possibility that the effect of fibropapilomatosis on turtle populations might be reduced by management strategies designed to break the cycle of transmission in these locations.

KW - C-FP-HV

KW - Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus

KW - Epidemiology

KW - Fibro-papillomatosis

KW - Florida

KW - Green turtle

KW - Herpesvirus

KW - Loggerhead turtle

KW - Marine turtle

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=27744569771&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=27744569771&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 41

SP - 489

EP - 497

JO - Journal of Wildlife Diseases

JF - Journal of Wildlife Diseases

SN - 0090-3558

IS - 3

ER -