CSF-1, the major regulator of macrophage (Mφ) development, has three biologically active isoforms: a membrane-spanning, cell surface glycoprotein, a secreted glycoprotein, and a secreted proteoglycan. We hypothesized that there are shared and unique roles of individual CSF-1 isoforms during renal inflammation. To test this, we evaluated transgenic mice only expressing the cell surface or precursors of the secreted CSF-1 isoforms for Mφ accumulation, activation, and Mφ-mediated tubular epithelial cell (TEC) apoptosis during unilateral ureteral obstruction. The only difference between secreted proteoglycan and secreted glycoprotein CSF-1 isoforms is the presence (proteoglycan) or absence (glycoprotein) of an 18-kDa chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan. We report that 1) cell surface CSF-1 isoform is sufficient to restore Mφ accumulation, activation, and TEC apoptosis to wild-type levels and is substantially more effective than the secreted CSF-1 isoforms; 2) the chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan facilitates Mφ accumulation, activation, and TEC apoptosis; 3) increasing the level of secreted proteoglycan CSF-1 in serum amplifies renal inflammation; and 4) cell-cell contact is required for Mφ to up-regulate CSF-1-dependent expression of IFN-γ. Taken together, we have identified central roles for the cell surface CSF-1 and the chondroitin sulfate chain on secreted proteoglycan CSF-1 during renal inflammation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy