Distinct effects of tubulin isotype mutations on neurite growth in Caenorhabditis elegans

Chaogu Zheng, Margarete Diaz-Cuadros, Ken C.Q. Nguyen, David H. Hall, Martin Chalfie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Tubulins, the building block of microtubules (MTs), play a critical role in both supporting and regulating neurite growth. Eukaryotic genomes contain multiple tubulin isotypes, and their missense mutations cause a range of neurodevelopmental defects. Using the C. elegans touch receptor neurons, we analyzed the effects of 67 tubulin missense mutations on neurite growth. Three types of mutations emerged: 1) loss-of-function mutations, which cause mild defects in neurite growth; 2) antimorphic mutations, which map to the GTP binding site and intradimer and interdimer interfaces, significantly reduce MT stability, and cause severe neurite growth defects; and 3) neomorphic mutations, which map to the exterior surface, increase MT stability, and cause ectopic neurite growth. Structure-function analysis reveals a causal relationship between tubulin structure and MT stability. This stability affects neuronal morphogenesis. As part of this analysis, we engineered several disease-associated human tubulin mutations into C. elegans genes and examined their impact on neuronal development at the cellular level. We also discovered an α-tubulin (TBA-7) that appears to destabilize MTs. Loss of TBA-7 led to the formation of hyperstable MTs and the generation of ectopic neurites; the lack of potential sites for polyamination and polyglutamination on TBA-7 may be responsible for this destabilization. Table of Content (TOC) Highlight Summary Different tubulin isotypes perform different functions in the regulation of MT structure and neurite growth, and missense mutations of tubulin genes have three types of distinct effects on MT stability and neurite growth. One α-tubulin isotype appears to induce relative instability due to the lack of potential post-translational modification sites.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalUnknown Journal
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 26 2017

Keywords

  • Caenorhabditis elegans
  • Microtubules
  • Neurite growth
  • Touch receptor neurons
  • Tubulins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

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