Manganese (Mn) is a trace element essential for normal human development and is required for the proper functioning of a variety of physiological processes. Chronic exposure to Mn can cause manganism, a neurodegenerative disorder resembling idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Mn(II) neurotoxicity is characterized by astrocytic impairment both in the expression and activity of glutamine (Gln) transporters. Because protein kinase C (PKC) activation leads to the downregulation of a number of neurotransmitter transporters and Mn(II) increases PKC activity, we hypothesized that the PKC signaling pathway contributes to the Mn(II)-mediated disruption of Gln turnover. Our results have shown that Mn exposure increases the phosphorylation of both the PKCα and PKCδ isoforms. PKC activity was also shown to be increased in response to Mn(II) treatment. Corroborating our earlier observations, Mn(II) also caused a decrease in Gln uptake. This effect was blocked by PKC inhibitors. Notably, PKC activation caused a decrease in Gln uptake mediated by systems ASC and N, but had no effect on the activities of systems A and L. Exposure to α-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate significantly decreased SNAT3 (system N) and ASCT2 (system ASC) protein levels. Additionally, a co-immunoprecipitation studydemonstrated the association of SNAT3 and ASCT2 with the PKCδ isoform, and Western blotting revealed the Mn(II)-mediated activation of PKCδ by proteolytic cleavage. PKC activation was also found to increase SNAT3 and ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 binding and to induce hyperubiquitination. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the Mn(II)-induced dysregulation of Gln homeostasis in astrocytes involves PKCδ signaling accompanied by an increase in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis.
- Glutamine transporter
- Protein kinase C
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience