Differentiation of Arrhythmias in the Dog by Measurement of Activation Sequence Using an Atrial and Two Ventricular Electrodes


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7 Scopus citations


Timing of atrioventricular activation and ventricular dispersion identifies and discriminates between beats of different origin. In eight dogs, three bipolar epicardial electrodes recorded left atrial and left and right ventricular depolarizations simultaneously during arrhythmias induced by programmed electrical stimulation and coronary artery occlusion and release. The interval between the left atrial and left ventricular intrinsic deflections (V1‐V2) and between the left ventricular and right ventricular intrinsic deflections (V1‐V2) of each heat was measured. Recordings were of normal sinus rhythm (NSR) (mean of five beats in 8/8 dogs), atrial flutter (AFL) (five beats of one episode), atrial fibrillation (AF) (144 beats in 29 episodes in 7/8), monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (MVT) (24 beats with six morphologies in 2/8), polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PVT) (63 beats in 15 episodes in 5/8) and premature ventricular contractions (PVC) (29 beats with 29 morphologies in 5/8). Supraventricular rhythms can be differentiated from ventricular rhythms by V1‐V2 timing. The mean difference in V1‐V2 during AFL and AF vs NSR was 1 ms (range of 0–3 ms). The change from sinus during MVT ranged from 38 to 43 ms (m 31 ms) and during PVC 10 to 75 ms (m 38 ms). Thirty‐five of 35 of these ectopic ventricular morphologies exhibited 10 ms or more timing difference compared to corresponding beats of NSR. PVT was consistently distinguished from supraventricular rhythms and MVT by the variability of V1‐V2,A‐V1 intervals can be used to distinguish supraventricular arrhythmias from sinus rhythm; a 32 ms difference existed for AFL. AF could be detected by the variability in AV1. One atrial and two ventricular leads can provide a means of differentiating normal sinus rhythm from supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias that may be applicable to implantable antitachycardia devices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1732-1738
Number of pages7
JournalPacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1988


  • atrial flutter
  • ventricular electrodes
  • ventricular tachycardia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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