Cardiovascular toxicity in the form of cardiac dysfunction continues to be an obstacle for patients with cancer. Survival and quality of life of cancer survivors are frequently affected by increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. The involvement of the cardiovascular system by primary or secondary malignancies, as well as its dysfunction secondary to the administration of antineoplastics, has led to the development of a new discipline called Cardio-Oncology, an exciting cardiology subspecialty with more questions than answers and as a result an enormous opportunity for research in the field. Multidisciplinary efforts have been focused on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer therapeutics–related cardiovascular dysfunction (CTRCD). This review article will focus on the early diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction associated with chemotherapy. Currently, the identification of cardiac toxicity associated with cancer treatment is the cornerstone for critical decisions regarding anticancer therapy and cardioprotective strategies. Its early detection, especially in subclinical phases, allows immediate intervention to prevent further impairment of the myocardium and other cardiovascular structures. The most significant published studies were selected for this revision, providing an updated document for the health professionals involved in the care of patients with cancer. We examined the current evidence and recommendations for biochemical and noninvasive diagnostic techniques, including their specific role for identification of CTRCD. Traditional and advanced imaging modalities, used alone or in combination with cardiovascular biomarkers, are essential for the recognition of cardiotoxicity during cancer therapy. Evolving basic and clinical research are focused on the development of more sensitive and specific diagnostic tools and for the recognition of cardiac toxicity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine