Epidemiologic evidence is limited about associations between T2DM, metformin, and the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). We aimed to examine associations between T2DM, metformin, and the risk of NHL in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Study. Information on T2DM status (diabetes status/types of antidiabetic drug use/diabetes duration) from study enrollment and during follow-up were assessed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate associations of T2DM status with risks of overall NHL and its three major subtypes [diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, n = 476), follicular lymphoma (FL, n = 301) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL, n = 136)] based on multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. During a median follow-up of 18.86 years (range, 0.01-25.13; SD ± 6.55), a total of 1637 women developed NHL among 147 885 postmenopausal women. Women with T2DM and with self-reported oral medication use had 38% and 55% higher risk of DLBCL, respectively [multivariable-adjusted model HR = 1.38, 95% CI (1.06-1.81) and HR = 1.55, 95% CI (1.16-2.06)] compared to the reference group (nondiabetics/untreated diabetes). Risks of NHL and DLBCL [multivariable-adjusted model: HR = 1.28, 95% CI (1.06-1.54) and HR = 1.56, 95% CI (1.13-2.14), respectively] were significantly higher in associations with relatively short duration (≤7 years) of diabetes, compared to reference group. Additionally, an increased risk of DLBCL [HR = 1.76, 95% CI (1.13-2.75)] was found in metformin users compared to the reference group. Postmenopausal women who had T2DM, who were oral antidiabetic drug users, especially metformin, and who had a shorter diabetes duration may have higher risks of DLBCL. Further well-designed research is needed to confirm our findings.
- antidiabetic medications
- diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
- duration of diabetes mellitus
- population-based study
- type 2 diabetes mellitus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research