The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program is a validated, outcomes-based program that strives to improve the quality of surgical care nationwide. One approach to improve surgical outcomes is by reduction of adverse events, such as venous thromboembolism and surgical site infections. In this article, preventative measures with thromboprophylaxis and antibiotics are reviewed. Routine thromboprophylaxis for the hospitalized patient is recommended based on risk stratification. Mechanical, pharmacologic, or alternative interventions may be required. In addition, there are published guidelines for judicious use of antibiotics in the surgical setting. We discuss the optimal choice, administration, and duration of antibiotics with recommendations specific to colorectal patients. In the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program era, widespread implementation and adherence to both thromboprophylaxis and antibiotics need to be optimized.
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