Protein flexibility plays a significant role in drug research due to its effect on accurate prediction of ligand binding mode and activity. Adenosine kinase (AK) represents a highly flexible binding site and is known to exhibit large conformational changes as a result of substrate or inhibitor binding. Here we propose a semi-open conformation for ligand binding in human AK, in addition to the known closed and open forms. The modeling study illustrates the necessity of thorough understanding of the conformational states of protein for docking and binding mode prediction. It has been shown that predicting activity in the context of correct binding mode can improve the insight into conserved interactions and mechanism of action for inhibition of AK. Integrating the knowledge about the binding modes of ligands in different conformational states of the protein, separate pharmacophore models were generated and used for virtual screening to explore potential novel hits. In addition, 2D descriptor based clustering was done to differentiate the ligands, binding to closed, semi-open and open conformations of human AK. The results indicated that binding of all AK inhibitors cannot be described by same rules, instead, they represent a rule based preference for inhibition. This inference about tubercidins binding to semi-open conformation of human AK may facilitate in finding much extensive space for AK inhibitors.
- Adenosine kinase
- Pharmacophore modeling
- Semi-open conformation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
- Materials Chemistry