Dairy products and ovarian cancer: A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies

Jeanine M. Genkinger, David J. Hunter, Donna Spiegelman, Kristin E. Anderson, Alan Arslan, W. Lawrence Beeson, Julie E. Buring, Gary E. Fraser, Jo L. Freudenheim, R. Alexandra Goldbohm, Susan E. Hankinson, David R. Jacobs, Anita Koushik, James V. Lacey, Susanna C. Larsson, Michael Leitzmann, Marji L. McCullough, Anthony B. Miller, Carmen Rodriguez, Thomas E. RohanLeo J. Scheuten, Roy Shore, Ellen Smit, Alicja Wolk, Shumin M. Zhang, Stephanie A. Smith-Warner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Dairy foods and their constituents (lactose and calcium) have been hypothesized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis. Although case-control studies have reported conflicting results for dairy foods and lactose, several cohort studies have shown positive associations between skim milk, lactose, and ovarian cancer. Methods: A pooled analysis of the primary data from 12 prospective cohort studies was conducted. The study population consisted of 553,217 women among whom 2,132 epithelial ovarian cases were identified. Study-specific relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled by a random-effects model. Results: No statistically significant associations were observed between intakes of milk, cheese, yogurt, ice cream, and dietary and total calcium intake and risk of ovarian cancer. Higher lactose intakes comparing ≥30 versus <10 g/d were associated with a statistically significant higher risk of ovarian cancer, although the trend was not statistically significant (pooled multivariate relative risk, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.40; P trend = 0.19). Associations for endometrioid, mucinous, and serous ovarian cancer were similar to the overall findings. Discussion: Overall, no associations were observed for intakes of specific dairy foods or calcium and ovarian cancer risk. A modest elevation in the risk of ovarian cancer was seen for lactose intake at the level that was equivalent to three or more servings of milk per day. Because a new dietary guideline recommends two to three servings of dairy products per day, the relation between dairy product consumption and ovarian cancer risk at these consumption levels deserves further examination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)364-372
Number of pages9
JournalCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention
Volume15
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2006

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Dairy Products
Ovarian Neoplasms
Cohort Studies
Lactose
Milk
Food
Confidence Intervals
Ice Cream
Calcium
Dietary Calcium
Nutrition Policy
Yogurt
Cheese
Proportional Hazards Models
Case-Control Studies
Carcinogenesis
Prospective Studies
Population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Oncology

Cite this

Genkinger, J. M., Hunter, D. J., Spiegelman, D., Anderson, K. E., Arslan, A., Beeson, W. L., ... Smith-Warner, S. A. (2006). Dairy products and ovarian cancer: A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 15(2), 364-372. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0484

Dairy products and ovarian cancer : A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies. / Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Hunter, David J.; Spiegelman, Donna; Anderson, Kristin E.; Arslan, Alan; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Buring, Julie E.; Fraser, Gary E.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Hankinson, Susan E.; Jacobs, David R.; Koushik, Anita; Lacey, James V.; Larsson, Susanna C.; Leitzmann, Michael; McCullough, Marji L.; Miller, Anthony B.; Rodriguez, Carmen; Rohan, Thomas E.; Scheuten, Leo J.; Shore, Roy; Smit, Ellen; Wolk, Alicja; Zhang, Shumin M.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.

In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol. 15, No. 2, 02.2006, p. 364-372.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Genkinger, JM, Hunter, DJ, Spiegelman, D, Anderson, KE, Arslan, A, Beeson, WL, Buring, JE, Fraser, GE, Freudenheim, JL, Goldbohm, RA, Hankinson, SE, Jacobs, DR, Koushik, A, Lacey, JV, Larsson, SC, Leitzmann, M, McCullough, ML, Miller, AB, Rodriguez, C, Rohan, TE, Scheuten, LJ, Shore, R, Smit, E, Wolk, A, Zhang, SM & Smith-Warner, SA 2006, 'Dairy products and ovarian cancer: A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies', Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 364-372. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0484
Genkinger, Jeanine M. ; Hunter, David J. ; Spiegelman, Donna ; Anderson, Kristin E. ; Arslan, Alan ; Beeson, W. Lawrence ; Buring, Julie E. ; Fraser, Gary E. ; Freudenheim, Jo L. ; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra ; Hankinson, Susan E. ; Jacobs, David R. ; Koushik, Anita ; Lacey, James V. ; Larsson, Susanna C. ; Leitzmann, Michael ; McCullough, Marji L. ; Miller, Anthony B. ; Rodriguez, Carmen ; Rohan, Thomas E. ; Scheuten, Leo J. ; Shore, Roy ; Smit, Ellen ; Wolk, Alicja ; Zhang, Shumin M. ; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A. / Dairy products and ovarian cancer : A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies. In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. 2006 ; Vol. 15, No. 2. pp. 364-372.
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T2 - A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies

AU - Genkinger, Jeanine M.

AU - Hunter, David J.

AU - Spiegelman, Donna

AU - Anderson, Kristin E.

AU - Arslan, Alan

AU - Beeson, W. Lawrence

AU - Buring, Julie E.

AU - Fraser, Gary E.

AU - Freudenheim, Jo L.

AU - Goldbohm, R. Alexandra

AU - Hankinson, Susan E.

AU - Jacobs, David R.

AU - Koushik, Anita

AU - Lacey, James V.

AU - Larsson, Susanna C.

AU - Leitzmann, Michael

AU - McCullough, Marji L.

AU - Miller, Anthony B.

AU - Rodriguez, Carmen

AU - Rohan, Thomas E.

AU - Scheuten, Leo J.

AU - Shore, Roy

AU - Smit, Ellen

AU - Wolk, Alicja

AU - Zhang, Shumin M.

AU - Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.

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N2 - Background: Dairy foods and their constituents (lactose and calcium) have been hypothesized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis. Although case-control studies have reported conflicting results for dairy foods and lactose, several cohort studies have shown positive associations between skim milk, lactose, and ovarian cancer. Methods: A pooled analysis of the primary data from 12 prospective cohort studies was conducted. The study population consisted of 553,217 women among whom 2,132 epithelial ovarian cases were identified. Study-specific relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled by a random-effects model. Results: No statistically significant associations were observed between intakes of milk, cheese, yogurt, ice cream, and dietary and total calcium intake and risk of ovarian cancer. Higher lactose intakes comparing ≥30 versus <10 g/d were associated with a statistically significant higher risk of ovarian cancer, although the trend was not statistically significant (pooled multivariate relative risk, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.40; P trend = 0.19). Associations for endometrioid, mucinous, and serous ovarian cancer were similar to the overall findings. Discussion: Overall, no associations were observed for intakes of specific dairy foods or calcium and ovarian cancer risk. A modest elevation in the risk of ovarian cancer was seen for lactose intake at the level that was equivalent to three or more servings of milk per day. Because a new dietary guideline recommends two to three servings of dairy products per day, the relation between dairy product consumption and ovarian cancer risk at these consumption levels deserves further examination.

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