The CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) is activated by the homodimeric growth factors colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and interleukin-34 (IL-34). It plays important roles in development and in innate immunity by regulating the development of most tissue macrophages and osteoclasts, of Langerhans cells of the skin, of Paneth cells of the small intestine, and of brain microglia. It also regulates the differentiation of neural progenitor cells and controls functions of oocytes and trophoblastic cells in the female reproductive tract. Owing to this broad tissue expression pattern, it plays a central role in neoplastic, inflammatory, and neurological diseases. In this review we summarize the evolution, structure, and regulation of expression of the CSF-1R gene. We discuss the structures of CSF-1, IL-34, and the CSF-1R and the mechanism of ligand binding to and activation of the receptor. We further describe the pathways regulating macrophage survival, proliferation, differentiation, and chemotaxis downstream from the CSF-1R.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)