Current combination antiretroviral therapies (ARV) are widely used to treat HIV. However drug-resistant strains of HIV have quickly evolved, and the level of risky behaviour has increased in certain communities. Hence, currently the overall impact that ARV will have on HIV epidemics remains unclear. We have used a mathematical model to predict whether the current therapies: are reducing the severity of HIV epidemics, and could even lead to eradication of a high-prevalence (30%) epidemic. We quantified the epidemic-level impact of ARV on reducing epidemic severity by deriving the basic reproduction number (R0ARV). R0ARV specifies the average number of new infections that one HIV case generates during his lifetime when ARV is available and ARV-resistant strains can evolve and be transmitted; if R0ARV is less than one epidemic eradication is possible. We estimated for the HIV epidemic in the San Francisco gay community (using uncertainty analysis), the present day value of R0ARV, and the probability of epidemic eradication. We assumed a high usage of ARV and three behavioural assumptions: that risky sex would (1) decrease, (2) remain stable, or (3) increase. Our estimated values of R0ARV (median and interquartile range [IQR]) were: 0.90 (0.85-0.96) if risky sex decreases, 1.0 (0.94-1.05) if risky sex remains stable, and 1.16 (1.05-1.28) if risky sex increases. R0ARV decreased as the fraction of cases receiving treatment increased. The probability of epidemic eradication is high (p=0.85) if risky sex decreases, moderate (p=0.5) if levels of risky sex remain stable, and low (p=0.13) if risky sex increases. We conclude that ARV can function as an effective HIV-prevention tool, even with high levels of drug resistance and risky sex. Furthermore, even a high-prevalence HIV epidemic could be eradicated usina current ARV.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases