Every biological fluid, blood, interstitial fluid and lymph, urine, saliva, lacrimal fluid, nipple aspirate, and spinal fluid, contains a peptidome-degradome derived from the cellular secretome along with byproducts of the metabolic/catabolic activities of each parenchymal organ. Clement et al. (J Proteomics 78:172–187, 2013), Clement et al. (J Biol Chem 291:5576–5595, 2016), Clement et al. (PLoS One 5:e9863, 2010), Clement et al. (Trends Immunol 32:6–11, 2011), Clement et al. (Front Immunol 4:424, 2013), Geho et al. (Curr Opin Chem Biol 10, 50–55, 2006), Interewicz et al. (Lymphology 37:65‑72, 2004), Leak et al. (Proteomics 4:753‑765, 2004), Popova et al. (PLoS One 9:e110873, 2014), Zhou et al. (Electrophoresis 25:1289‑1298, 2004), D'Alessandro et al. (Shock 42:509‑517, 2014), Dzieciatkowska et al. (Shock 42:485‑498, 2014), Dzieciatkowska et al. (Shock 35:331‑338, 2011), Jordan et al. (J Surg Res 143:130‑135, 2007), Peltz et al. (Surgery 146:347‑357, 2009), Zurawel et al. (Clin Proteomics 8:1, 2011), Ling et al. (Clin Proteomics 6:175‑193, 2010), Sturm et al. (Nat Commun 4:1616, 2013). Over the last decade, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the biological fluids peptidome and degradome have provided a dynamic measurement of tissue homeostasis as well as the tissue response to pathological damage. Proteomic profiling has mapped several of the proteases and resulting degradation by-products derived from cell cycle progression, organ/tissue remodeling and cellular growth, physiological apoptosis, hemostasis, and angiogenesis. Currently, a growing interest lies in the degradome observed during pathological conditions such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, and immune responses to pathogens as a way to exploit biological fluids as liquid biopsies for biomarker discovery Dzieciatkowska et al. (Shock 42:485–498, 2014), Dzieciatkowska et al. (Shock 35:331–338, 2011), Ling et al. (Clin Proteomics 6:175–193, 2010), Ugalde et al. (Methods Mol Biol 622:3–29, 2010), Quesada et al. (Nucleic Acids Res 37:D239‑243, 2009), Cal et al. (Front Biosci 12, 4661–4669, 2007), Shen et al. (PLoS One 5:e13133, 2010a), Antwi et al. (Mol Immunol 46:2931–2937, 2009a), Antwi et al. (J Proteome Res 8:4722‑4731, 2009b), Bedin et al. (J Cell Physiol 231, 915‑925, 2016), Bery et al. (Clin Proteomics 11:13, 2014), Bhalla et al. (Sci Rep 7:1511, 2017), Fan et al. (Diagn Pathol 7:45, 2012a), Fang et al. (Shock 34:291‑298, 2010), Fiedler et al. (Clin Cancer Res 15:3812‑3819, 2009), Fredolini et al. (AAPS J 12:504‑518, 2010), Greening et al. (Enzymes 42:27‑64, 2017), He et al. (PLoS One 8:e63724, 2013), Huang et al. (Int J Gynecol Cancer 28:355‑362, 2018), Hashiguchi et al. (Med Hypotheses 73:760‑763, 2009), Liotta and Petricoin (J Clin Invest 116:26‑30, 2006), Petricoin et al. (Nat Rev Cancer 6:961‑967, 2006), Shen et al. (J Proteome Res 9:2339‑2346, 2010a), Shen et al. (J Proteome Res 5:3154‑3160, 2006), Smith (Clin Proteomics 11:23, 2014), Wang et al. (Oncotarget 8:59376‑59386, 2017), Yang et al. (Clin Exp Med 12:79‑87, 2012a), Yang et al. (J Clin Lab Anal 26:148‑154, 2012b), Yang et al. (Anat Rec (Hoboken) 293:2027‑2033, 2010), Zapico-Muniz et al. (Pancreas 39:1293‑1298, 2010), Villanueva et al. (Mol Cell Proteomics 5:1840‑1852, 2006), Robbins et al. (J Clin Oncol 23:4835‑4837, 2005), Klupczynska et al. (Int J Mol Sci 17:410, 2016). In this review, we focus on the current knowledge of the degradome/peptidome observed in two main biological fluids (plasma and lymph) during physiological and pathological conditions and its importance for immune surveillance.
- MHC molecules
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