Contribution of adipose tissue to health span and longevity

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

25 Scopus citations

Abstract

Adipose tissue accounts for approximately 20% (lean) to >50% (in extreme obesity) of body mass and is biologically active through its secretion of numerous peptides and release and storage of nutrients such as free fatty acids. Studies in rodents and humans have revealed that body fat distribution, including visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous (SC) fat and ectopic fat are critical for determining the risk posed by obesity. Specific depletion or expansion of the VF depot using genetic or surgical strategies in animal models has proven to have direct effects on metabolic characteristics and disease risk. In humans, there is compelling evidence that abdominal obesity most strongly predicts mortality risk, while in rats, surgical removal of VF improves mean and maximum life span. There is also growing evidence that fat deposition in ectopic depots such as skeletal muscle and liver can cause lipotoxicity and impair insulin action. Conversely, expansion of SC adipose tissue may confer protection from metabolic derangements by serving as a 'metabolic sink' to limit both systemic lipids and the accrual of visceral and ectopic fat. Treatments targeting the prevention of fat accrual in these harmful depots should be considered as a primary target for improving human health span and longevity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationBody Composition and Aging
EditorsCharles Mobbs, patrick Hof
Pages1-19
Number of pages19
DOIs
StatePublished - 2010

Publication series

NameInterdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology
Volume37
ISSN (Print)0074-1132
ISSN (Electronic)1662-3800

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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