Consumption of alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine among depressed outpatients: Relationship with response to treatment

John Worthington, Maurizio Fava, Christina Agustin, Jonathan Alpert, Andrew A. Nierenberg, Joel A. Pava, Jerrold F. Rosenbaum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

58 Scopus citations


The authors present findings, from the first investigation of the use of alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine in nonsubstance-abusing outpatients with major depressive disorder The patients (N = 94) were assessed for their intake of alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine, and then treated openly for 8 weeks with 20 mg/day of fluoxetine. The degree of alcohol consumption at baseline was a significant predictor of poorer response to the antidepressant. This relationship remained significant even after adjusting for severity of depression at baseline. Even moderate levels of alcohol consumption appear to negatively affect pharmacologic treatment in depressed outpatients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)518-522
Number of pages5
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jan 1 1996
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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