Complete mapping of crystallization pathways during cholesterol precipitation from model bile: Influence of physical-chemical variables of pathophysiologic relevance and identification of a stable liquid crystalline state in cold, dilute and hydrophilic bile salt-containing systems

David Q.H. Wang, Martin C. Carey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

162 Scopus citations


Using complementary physical-chemical techniques we defined five different crystallization pathways as functions of time (30 days) and increasing lecithin (egg yolk) content in pathophysiologically relevant model biles supersaturated (cholesterol saturation indices, 1.2-2.7) by dilution of ≈29 g/dl bile salt-lecithin-cholesterol micellar solutions. As evidenced by quasi-elastic light-scattering spectroscopy, supersaturation was heralded by the appearance of unilamellar vesicles. With the lowest lecithin contents, arc-like crystals with habit and density (d 1.030 g/mL) consistent with anhydrous cholesterol appeared first and evolved via helical and tubular crystals to form plate-like cholesterol monohydrate crystals (d 1.045 g/mL). With higher lecithin fractions, cholesterol monohydrate crystals appeared earlier than arc and other transitional crystals. With typical physiological lecithin contents, early liquid crystals (d 1.020 g/mL) were followed by cholesterol monohydrate crystals and subsequent appearances of arc and other intermediate crystals. With higher lecithin contents, liquid crystals were followed by cholesterol monohydrate crystals only, and at the highest lecithin mole fractions, liquid crystals appeared that did not generate solid crystals. Added calcium increased solid crystal number in proportion to its concentration (5-20 mM) but did not influence appearance times, crystallization pathways, or micellar cholesterol solubilities. Decreases in temperature (37° → 4°C), total lipid concentration (7.3 → 2.4 g/dL), and bile salt hydrophobicity (3α, 12α → 3α,7α → 3α,7α,12α → 3α,7β hydroxylated taurine conjugates) progressively shifted all crystallization pathways to lower lecithin contents, retarded crystallization, and decreased micellar cholesterol solubilities. The lecithin content of mother biles decreased markedly during crystallization especially where liquid crystals were a coexisting phase at equilibrium. This systematic study provides a framework for understanding cholesterol crystallization in human and animal biles and for examining factors that influence the kinetics of phase separation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)606-630
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of Lipid Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 1996
Externally publishedYes



  • Calcium
  • Crystal density
  • Crystal habits
  • Gallstones
  • Lecithin
  • Liquid crystals
  • Microscopy
  • Phase diagrams
  • Phospholipid
  • Quasi-elastic light-scattering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Cell Biology

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