Comparison of lower genital tract microbiota in HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the US

Lorie Benning, Elizabeth T. Golub, Kathryn Anastos, Audrey L. French, Mardge Cohen, Douglas Gilbert, Patrick Gillevet, Elisaphane Munyazesa, Alan L. Landay, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Gregory T. Spear

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Abstract

Introduction: Previous studies have shown that alterations of the bacterial microbiota in the lower female genital tract influence susceptibility to HIV infection and shedding. We assessed geographic differences in types of genital microbiota between HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the United States. Methods: Genera of lower genital tract bacterial microbiota were identified by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 46 US women (36 HIV-infected, 10 HIV-uninfected) and 40 Rwandan women (18 HIV-infected, 22 HIV-uninfected) with similar proportions of low (0-3) Nugent scores. Species of Lactobacillus were identified by assembling sequences along with reference sequences into phylogenetic trees. Prevalence of genera and Lactobacillus species were compared using Fisher's exact tests. Results: Overall the seven most prevalent genera were Lactobacillus (74%), Prevotella (56%), Gardnerella (55%), Atopobium (42%), Sneathia (37%), Megasphaera (30%), and Parvimonas (26%), observed at similar prevalences comparing Rwandan to US women, except for Megasphaera (20% vs. 39%, p = 0.06). Additionally, Rwandan women had higher frequencies of Mycoplasma (23% vs. 7%, p = 0.06) and Eggerthella (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.02), and lower frequencies of Lachnobacterium (8% vs. 35%, p<0.01) and Allisonella (5% vs. 30%, p<0.01), compared with US women. The prevalence of Mycoplasma was highest (p<0.05) in HIV-infected Rwandan women (39%), compared to HIV-infected US women (6%), HIV-uninfected Rwandan (9%) and US (10%) women. The most prevalent lactobacillus species in both Rwandan and US women was L. iners (58% vs. 76%, p = 0.11), followed by L. crispatus (28% vs. 30%, p = 0.82), L. jensenii (20% vs. 24%, p = 0.80), L. gasseri (20% vs. 11%, p = 0.37) and L. vaginalis (20% vs. 7%, p = 0.10). Discussion: We found similar prevalence of most major bacterial genera and Lactobacillus species in Rwandan and US women. Further work will be needed to establish whether observed differences differentially impact lower genital tract health or susceptibility to genital infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere96844
JournalPLoS One
Volume9
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 9 2014

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Rwanda
Microbiota
genitalia
Genes
Throughput
Health
HIV
Lactobacillus
Megasphaera
Mycoplasma
Lachnobacterium
Eggerthella
Gardnerella
Atopobium
microbiome
Prevotella
female genitalia
HIV infections
rRNA Genes
HIV Infections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Comparison of lower genital tract microbiota in HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the US. / Benning, Lorie; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Anastos, Kathryn; French, Audrey L.; Cohen, Mardge; Gilbert, Douglas; Gillevet, Patrick; Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Landay, Alan L.; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Spear, Gregory T.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 9, No. 5, e96844, 09.05.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Benning, L, Golub, ET, Anastos, K, French, AL, Cohen, M, Gilbert, D, Gillevet, P, Munyazesa, E, Landay, AL, Sikaroodi, M & Spear, GT 2014, 'Comparison of lower genital tract microbiota in HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the US', PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 5, e96844. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096844
Benning, Lorie ; Golub, Elizabeth T. ; Anastos, Kathryn ; French, Audrey L. ; Cohen, Mardge ; Gilbert, Douglas ; Gillevet, Patrick ; Munyazesa, Elisaphane ; Landay, Alan L. ; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh ; Spear, Gregory T. / Comparison of lower genital tract microbiota in HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the US. In: PLoS One. 2014 ; Vol. 9, No. 5.
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abstract = "Introduction: Previous studies have shown that alterations of the bacterial microbiota in the lower female genital tract influence susceptibility to HIV infection and shedding. We assessed geographic differences in types of genital microbiota between HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the United States. Methods: Genera of lower genital tract bacterial microbiota were identified by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 46 US women (36 HIV-infected, 10 HIV-uninfected) and 40 Rwandan women (18 HIV-infected, 22 HIV-uninfected) with similar proportions of low (0-3) Nugent scores. Species of Lactobacillus were identified by assembling sequences along with reference sequences into phylogenetic trees. Prevalence of genera and Lactobacillus species were compared using Fisher's exact tests. Results: Overall the seven most prevalent genera were Lactobacillus (74{\%}), Prevotella (56{\%}), Gardnerella (55{\%}), Atopobium (42{\%}), Sneathia (37{\%}), Megasphaera (30{\%}), and Parvimonas (26{\%}), observed at similar prevalences comparing Rwandan to US women, except for Megasphaera (20{\%} vs. 39{\%}, p = 0.06). Additionally, Rwandan women had higher frequencies of Mycoplasma (23{\%} vs. 7{\%}, p = 0.06) and Eggerthella (13{\%} vs. 0{\%}, p = 0.02), and lower frequencies of Lachnobacterium (8{\%} vs. 35{\%}, p<0.01) and Allisonella (5{\%} vs. 30{\%}, p<0.01), compared with US women. The prevalence of Mycoplasma was highest (p<0.05) in HIV-infected Rwandan women (39{\%}), compared to HIV-infected US women (6{\%}), HIV-uninfected Rwandan (9{\%}) and US (10{\%}) women. The most prevalent lactobacillus species in both Rwandan and US women was L. iners (58{\%} vs. 76{\%}, p = 0.11), followed by L. crispatus (28{\%} vs. 30{\%}, p = 0.82), L. jensenii (20{\%} vs. 24{\%}, p = 0.80), L. gasseri (20{\%} vs. 11{\%}, p = 0.37) and L. vaginalis (20{\%} vs. 7{\%}, p = 0.10). Discussion: We found similar prevalence of most major bacterial genera and Lactobacillus species in Rwandan and US women. Further work will be needed to establish whether observed differences differentially impact lower genital tract health or susceptibility to genital infections.",
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AU - Cohen, Mardge

AU - Gilbert, Douglas

AU - Gillevet, Patrick

AU - Munyazesa, Elisaphane

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N2 - Introduction: Previous studies have shown that alterations of the bacterial microbiota in the lower female genital tract influence susceptibility to HIV infection and shedding. We assessed geographic differences in types of genital microbiota between HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the United States. Methods: Genera of lower genital tract bacterial microbiota were identified by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 46 US women (36 HIV-infected, 10 HIV-uninfected) and 40 Rwandan women (18 HIV-infected, 22 HIV-uninfected) with similar proportions of low (0-3) Nugent scores. Species of Lactobacillus were identified by assembling sequences along with reference sequences into phylogenetic trees. Prevalence of genera and Lactobacillus species were compared using Fisher's exact tests. Results: Overall the seven most prevalent genera were Lactobacillus (74%), Prevotella (56%), Gardnerella (55%), Atopobium (42%), Sneathia (37%), Megasphaera (30%), and Parvimonas (26%), observed at similar prevalences comparing Rwandan to US women, except for Megasphaera (20% vs. 39%, p = 0.06). Additionally, Rwandan women had higher frequencies of Mycoplasma (23% vs. 7%, p = 0.06) and Eggerthella (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.02), and lower frequencies of Lachnobacterium (8% vs. 35%, p<0.01) and Allisonella (5% vs. 30%, p<0.01), compared with US women. The prevalence of Mycoplasma was highest (p<0.05) in HIV-infected Rwandan women (39%), compared to HIV-infected US women (6%), HIV-uninfected Rwandan (9%) and US (10%) women. The most prevalent lactobacillus species in both Rwandan and US women was L. iners (58% vs. 76%, p = 0.11), followed by L. crispatus (28% vs. 30%, p = 0.82), L. jensenii (20% vs. 24%, p = 0.80), L. gasseri (20% vs. 11%, p = 0.37) and L. vaginalis (20% vs. 7%, p = 0.10). Discussion: We found similar prevalence of most major bacterial genera and Lactobacillus species in Rwandan and US women. Further work will be needed to establish whether observed differences differentially impact lower genital tract health or susceptibility to genital infections.

AB - Introduction: Previous studies have shown that alterations of the bacterial microbiota in the lower female genital tract influence susceptibility to HIV infection and shedding. We assessed geographic differences in types of genital microbiota between HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the United States. Methods: Genera of lower genital tract bacterial microbiota were identified by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 46 US women (36 HIV-infected, 10 HIV-uninfected) and 40 Rwandan women (18 HIV-infected, 22 HIV-uninfected) with similar proportions of low (0-3) Nugent scores. Species of Lactobacillus were identified by assembling sequences along with reference sequences into phylogenetic trees. Prevalence of genera and Lactobacillus species were compared using Fisher's exact tests. Results: Overall the seven most prevalent genera were Lactobacillus (74%), Prevotella (56%), Gardnerella (55%), Atopobium (42%), Sneathia (37%), Megasphaera (30%), and Parvimonas (26%), observed at similar prevalences comparing Rwandan to US women, except for Megasphaera (20% vs. 39%, p = 0.06). Additionally, Rwandan women had higher frequencies of Mycoplasma (23% vs. 7%, p = 0.06) and Eggerthella (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.02), and lower frequencies of Lachnobacterium (8% vs. 35%, p<0.01) and Allisonella (5% vs. 30%, p<0.01), compared with US women. The prevalence of Mycoplasma was highest (p<0.05) in HIV-infected Rwandan women (39%), compared to HIV-infected US women (6%), HIV-uninfected Rwandan (9%) and US (10%) women. The most prevalent lactobacillus species in both Rwandan and US women was L. iners (58% vs. 76%, p = 0.11), followed by L. crispatus (28% vs. 30%, p = 0.82), L. jensenii (20% vs. 24%, p = 0.80), L. gasseri (20% vs. 11%, p = 0.37) and L. vaginalis (20% vs. 7%, p = 0.10). Discussion: We found similar prevalence of most major bacterial genera and Lactobacillus species in Rwandan and US women. Further work will be needed to establish whether observed differences differentially impact lower genital tract health or susceptibility to genital infections.

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