Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate and compare different system calibration methods from a large cohort of systems to establish a commissioning procedure for surface-guided frameless cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with intrafractional motion monitoring and gating. Using optical surface imaging (OSI) to guide non-coplanar SRS treatments, the determination of OSI couch-angle dependency, baseline drift, and gated-delivered-dose equivalency are essential. Methods: Eleven trained physicists evaluated 17 OSI systems at nine clinical centers within our institution. Three calibration methods were examined, including 1-level (2D), 2-level plate (3D) calibration for both surface image reconstruction and isocenter determination, and cube phantom calibration to assess OSI-megavoltage (MV) isocenter concordance. After each calibration, a couch-angle dependency error was measured as the maximum registration error within the couch rotation range. A head phantom was immobilized on the treatment couch and the isocenter was set in the middle of the brain, marked with the room lasers. An on-site reference image was acquired at couch zero, the facial region of interest (ROI) was defined, and static verification images were captured every 10° for 0°–90° and 360°–270°. The baseline drift was assessed with real-time monitoring of the motionless phantom over 20 min. The gated-delivered-dose equivalency was assessed using the electron portal imaging device and gamma test (1%/1mm) in reference to non-gated delivery. Results: The maximum couch-angle dependency error occurs in longitudinal and lateral directions and is reduced significantly (P < 0.05) from 1-level (1.3 ± 0.4 mm) to 2-level (0.8 ± 0.3 mm) calibration. The MV cube calibration does not further reduce the couch-angle dependency error (0.8 ± 0.2 mm) on average. The baseline drift error plateaus at 0.3 ± 0.1 mm after 10 min. The gated-delivered-dose equivalency has a >98% gamma-test passing rate. Conclusion: A commissioning method is recommended using the 3D plate calibration, which is verified by radiation isocenter and validated with couch-angle dependency, baseline drift, and gated-delivered-dose equivalency tests. This method characterizes OSI uncertainties, ensuring motion-monitoring accuracy for SRS treatments.
- calibration and commissioning
- couch-angle dependency
- frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)
- optical surface imaging (OSI)
- surface-guided frameless radiosurgery
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging