Combined segment arterial disease

R. H. Samson, L. A. Scher, F. J. Veith

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


CSAD provides a challenge for the vascular surgeon. Patients are older, sicker, and at greater risk than are patients with unisegmental disease. Similarly, symptoms are more severe and limb loss is more frequent. A multitude of different reconstructive techniques are available, but their injudicious or untimely use can not only fail to improve the patient but can also cause limb loss or death. Their use must be predicated by a differentiation of which arterial segments are hemodynamically involved, yet this determination may not be possible even after extensive noninvasive and invasive investigation. To optimize the approach to these patients, the following principles should be employed. First, incapacitating claudication is a valid indication for a suprainguinal inflow procedure in a good-risk patient. However, indications for surgery should usually be limited to limb salvage, especially if an infrainguinal procedure is contemplated. Medical conditions such as heart failure and diabetes should be improved before arteriography. The latter should delineate the entire infrarenal arterial system, with special attention to the iliac, deep femoral, and pedal arteries. Oblique views may be of critical importance. Noninvasive hemodynamic tests should be used to confirm the need for arterial reconstruction and help delineate areas of functional stenosis. Direct pull-through pressure measurements may be required for ultimate confirmation. If proximal disease is thus defined, as proximal inflow operation should usually be sufficient unless there is extensive gangrene of the foot, in which case synchronous distal grafts may be required. If the proximal graft alone is performed, the patient must be followed closely since approximately 10% of patients may need subsequent distal reconstructions. The role of the 'runoff' segments such as the deep femoral artery, popliteal trifurcation, and pedal arteries may be critical. Every effort should be made to ensure flow through these vessels. Profundoplasty alone is seldom indicated but is often a valuable adjunct to other reconstructive procedures. Lumbar sympathectomy is seldom required. PTA is becoming a valuable adjunct to treatment of CSAD, and intraoperative dilatation also has potential attributes. If such an approach is followed, lasting limb salvage with minimal morbidity should be achieved in most patients with CSAD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)385-396
Number of pages12
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 1985

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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