Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 is the primary regulator of tissue macrophage production. CSF-1 expression is correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer and is believed to enhance mammary tumor progression and metastasis through the recruitment and regulation of tumor-associated macrophages. Macrophages produce matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor, which are crucial for tumor invasion and angiogenesis. Given the important role of CSF-1, we hypothesized that blockade of CSF-1 or the CSF-1 receptor (the product of the c-fms proto-oncogene) would suppress macrophage infiltration and mammary tumor growth. Human MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cell xenografts in mice were treated with either mouse CSF-1 antisense oligonucleotide for 2 weeks or five intratumoral injections of either CSF-1 small interfering RNAs or c-fms small interfering RNAs. These treatments suppressed mammary tumor growth by 50%, 45%, and 40%, respectively, and selectively down-regulated target protein expression in tumor lysates. Host macrophage infiltration; host MMP-12, MMP-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor A expression; and endothelial cell proliferation within tumors of treated mice were decreased compared with tumors in control mice. In addition, mouse survival significantly increased after CSF-1 blockade. These studies demonstrate that CSF-1 and CSF-1 receptor are potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of mammary cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research