Cobalt is a hazardous material that has harmful effects on neurotoxicity. Excessive exposure to cobalt or inactivation of the unique proline isomerase Pin1 contributes to age-dependent neurodegeneration. However, nothing is known about the role of Pin1 in cobalt-induced neurodegeneration. Here we find that out of several hazardous materials, only cobalt dose-dependently decreased Pin1 expression and alterations in its substrates, including cis and trans phosphorylated Tau in human neuronal cells, concomitant with neurotoxicity. Cobalt-induced neurotoxicity was aggravated by Pin1 genetic or chemical inhibition, but rescued by Pin1 upregulation. Furthermore, less than 4 μg/l of blood cobalt induced dose- and age-dependent Pin1 downregulation in murine brains, ensuing neurodegenerative changes. These defects were corroborated by changes in Pin1 substrates, including cis and trans phosphorylated Tau, amyloid precursor protein, β amyloid and GSK3β. Moreover, blood Pin1 was downregulated in human hip replacement patients with median blood cobalt level of 2.514 μg/l, which is significantly less than the safety threshold of 10 μg/l, suggesting an early role Pin1 played in neurodegenerative damages. Thus, Pin1 inactivation by cobalt contributes to age-dependent neurodegeneration, revealing that cobalt is a hazardous material triggering AD-like neurodegenerative damages.
- Phosphorylated Tau (P-Tau)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis