Co-stimulate or Co-inhibit Regulatory T Cells, Which Side to Go?

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules direct the “second signal,” which largely determines the outcome of the “first signal” generated by the interaction of T cell receptor (TCR) with cognate MHC–peptide complex. The co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory signals are key mechanistic contributors to the regulation of adaptive immunity, especially the T cell–mediated immune response. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a special population of T cells, which unlike other T cells function as “attenuators” to suppress T cell immunity. Dysregulation of either the “second signal” or Tregs leads to an unbalanced immune system, which can result in a range of immune-related disorders, including autoimmune diseases, chronic infections, and tumors. In contrast, precise manipulation of these two systems offers tremendous clinical opportunities to treat these same diseases. Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules modulate immunity at molecular level, whereas Tregs delicately control the immune response at cellular level. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that these two regulatory strategies converge and synergize with each other. This review discusses recent progress on the roles of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory signals in the context of Tregs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)813-831
Number of pages19
JournalImmunological Investigations
Volume45
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 16 2016

Fingerprint

Regulatory T-Lymphocytes
T-Lymphocytes
Immunity
Immune System Diseases
Adaptive Immunity
T-Cell Antigen Receptor
Cellular Immunity
Autoimmune Diseases
Immune System
Infection
Population
Neoplasms

Keywords

  • Co-inhibition
  • co-stimulation
  • immunotherapy
  • Treg

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

Cite this

Co-stimulate or Co-inhibit Regulatory T Cells, Which Side to Go? / Liu, Weifeng; Almo, Steven C.; Zang, Xingxing.

In: Immunological Investigations, Vol. 45, No. 8, 16.11.2016, p. 813-831.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

@article{57ae0674b36643f681f2462b317197de,
title = "Co-stimulate or Co-inhibit Regulatory T Cells, Which Side to Go?",
abstract = "Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules direct the “second signal,” which largely determines the outcome of the “first signal” generated by the interaction of T cell receptor (TCR) with cognate MHC–peptide complex. The co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory signals are key mechanistic contributors to the regulation of adaptive immunity, especially the T cell–mediated immune response. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a special population of T cells, which unlike other T cells function as “attenuators” to suppress T cell immunity. Dysregulation of either the “second signal” or Tregs leads to an unbalanced immune system, which can result in a range of immune-related disorders, including autoimmune diseases, chronic infections, and tumors. In contrast, precise manipulation of these two systems offers tremendous clinical opportunities to treat these same diseases. Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules modulate immunity at molecular level, whereas Tregs delicately control the immune response at cellular level. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that these two regulatory strategies converge and synergize with each other. This review discusses recent progress on the roles of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory signals in the context of Tregs.",
keywords = "Co-inhibition, co-stimulation, immunotherapy, Treg",
author = "Weifeng Liu and Almo, {Steven C.} and Xingxing Zang",
year = "2016",
month = "11",
day = "16",
doi = "10.1080/08820139.2016.1186690",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "45",
pages = "813--831",
journal = "Immunological Investigations",
issn = "0882-0139",
publisher = "Informa Healthcare",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Co-stimulate or Co-inhibit Regulatory T Cells, Which Side to Go?

AU - Liu, Weifeng

AU - Almo, Steven C.

AU - Zang, Xingxing

PY - 2016/11/16

Y1 - 2016/11/16

N2 - Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules direct the “second signal,” which largely determines the outcome of the “first signal” generated by the interaction of T cell receptor (TCR) with cognate MHC–peptide complex. The co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory signals are key mechanistic contributors to the regulation of adaptive immunity, especially the T cell–mediated immune response. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a special population of T cells, which unlike other T cells function as “attenuators” to suppress T cell immunity. Dysregulation of either the “second signal” or Tregs leads to an unbalanced immune system, which can result in a range of immune-related disorders, including autoimmune diseases, chronic infections, and tumors. In contrast, precise manipulation of these two systems offers tremendous clinical opportunities to treat these same diseases. Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules modulate immunity at molecular level, whereas Tregs delicately control the immune response at cellular level. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that these two regulatory strategies converge and synergize with each other. This review discusses recent progress on the roles of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory signals in the context of Tregs.

AB - Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules direct the “second signal,” which largely determines the outcome of the “first signal” generated by the interaction of T cell receptor (TCR) with cognate MHC–peptide complex. The co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory signals are key mechanistic contributors to the regulation of adaptive immunity, especially the T cell–mediated immune response. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a special population of T cells, which unlike other T cells function as “attenuators” to suppress T cell immunity. Dysregulation of either the “second signal” or Tregs leads to an unbalanced immune system, which can result in a range of immune-related disorders, including autoimmune diseases, chronic infections, and tumors. In contrast, precise manipulation of these two systems offers tremendous clinical opportunities to treat these same diseases. Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules modulate immunity at molecular level, whereas Tregs delicately control the immune response at cellular level. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that these two regulatory strategies converge and synergize with each other. This review discusses recent progress on the roles of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory signals in the context of Tregs.

KW - Co-inhibition

KW - co-stimulation

KW - immunotherapy

KW - Treg

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84992463508&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84992463508&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/08820139.2016.1186690

DO - 10.1080/08820139.2016.1186690

M3 - Review article

VL - 45

SP - 813

EP - 831

JO - Immunological Investigations

JF - Immunological Investigations

SN - 0882-0139

IS - 8

ER -