The central distal axonopathy induced in dogs by the administration of high doses of clioquinol is contrasted with the central-peripheral distal axonopathy precipitated by intoxication with 2,5-hexanedione. Mature, pure-bred Beagle dogs received a daily oral dose of 400 mg/kg of clioquinol for up to 7 months, or 1 ml per animal (approximately corresponding to 110 mg/kg) of 2,5-hexanedione for up to 5 months. Intoxicated and control animals were killed and perfused at monthly intervals, so that the spatial-temporal development of the lesion could be followed and correlated with clinical symptoms. During the treatment, dogs intoxicated with 2,5-hexanedione developed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy consisting of flaccid weakness, muscle atrophy, hind-limb foot-drop and areflexia. By contrast, the dogs surviving clioquinol intoxication exhibited a stiff-legged gait, hyperreflexia but no muscle atrophy. Light and electron microscope examination of central and peripheral nervous tissue from dogs intoxicated with 2,5-hexanedione revealed giant axonal swelling and distal axonal degeneration. By contrast, dogs receiving clioquinol showed a distal axonal degeneration confined to the optic tract and the long spinal cord tracts, without any visible involvement of peripheral nerves.
- Distal axonopathy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Clinical Neurology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience