Clinical predictors of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients

Peter A. Selwyn, Andrew S. Pumerantz, Amanda Durante, Phillip G. Alcabes, Marc N. Gourevitch, Phillip M. Boiselle, Joann G. Elmore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

71 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Clinicians are frequently faced with the differential diagnosis between Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), bacterial pneumonia, and pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. Objectives: To identify features that could help differentiate these three pneumonia types at presentation by evaluating the clinical characteristics of the three diagnoses among patients at two urban teaching hospitals. Design: Retrospective chart review. Methods: Cases were HIV-infected patients with a verified hospital discharge diagnosis of PCP (n = 99), bacterial pneumonia (n = 94), or tuberculosis (n = 36). Admitting notes were reviewed in a standardized manner; univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine clinical predictors of each diagnosis. Results: Combinations of variables with the highest sensitivity, specificity, and odds ratios (OR) were as follows: for PCP, exertional dyspnea plus interstitial infiltrate (sensitivity 58%, specificity 92%; OR, 16.3); for bacterial pneumonia, lobar infiltrate plus fever ≤ 7 days duration (sensitivity 48%, specificity 94%; OR, 14.6); and for tuberculosis, cough > 7 days plus night sweats (sensitivity 33%, specificity 86%; OR, 3.1). On regression analysis, independent predictors included interstitial infiltrate (OR, 10.2), exertional dyspnea (OR, 4.9), and oral thrush (OR, 2.9) for PCP; rhonchi on examination (OR, 12.4), a chart mention of 'toxic' appearance (OR, 9.1), fever ≤ 7 days (OR, 6.6), and lobar infiltrate (OR, 5.8) for bacterial pneumonia; and cavitary infiltrate (OR, 21.1), fever > 7 days (OR, 3.9), and weight loss (OR, 3.6) for tuberculosis. Conclusions: Simple clinical variables, all readily available at the time of hospital admission, can help to differentiate these common pneumonia syndromes in HIV-infected patients. These findings can help to inform clinical decision-making regarding choice of therapy, use of invasive diagnostic procedures, and need for respiratory isolation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)885-893
Number of pages9
JournalAIDS
Volume12
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - May 28 1998
Externally publishedYes

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Bacterial Pneumonia
Pneumocystis Pneumonia
Tuberculosis
Odds Ratio
HIV
Sensitivity and Specificity
Fever
Dyspnea
Pneumonia
Oral Candidiasis
Sweat
Poisons
Urban Hospitals
Respiratory Sounds
Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Cough
Teaching Hospitals

Keywords

  • AIDS
  • Bacterial pneumonia
  • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
  • Tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

Cite this

Selwyn, P. A., Pumerantz, A. S., Durante, A., Alcabes, P. G., Gourevitch, M. N., Boiselle, P. M., & Elmore, J. G. (1998). Clinical predictors of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. AIDS, 12(8), 885-893. https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199808000-00011

Clinical predictors of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. / Selwyn, Peter A.; Pumerantz, Andrew S.; Durante, Amanda; Alcabes, Phillip G.; Gourevitch, Marc N.; Boiselle, Phillip M.; Elmore, Joann G.

In: AIDS, Vol. 12, No. 8, 28.05.1998, p. 885-893.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Selwyn, PA, Pumerantz, AS, Durante, A, Alcabes, PG, Gourevitch, MN, Boiselle, PM & Elmore, JG 1998, 'Clinical predictors of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients', AIDS, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 885-893. https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199808000-00011
Selwyn, Peter A. ; Pumerantz, Andrew S. ; Durante, Amanda ; Alcabes, Phillip G. ; Gourevitch, Marc N. ; Boiselle, Phillip M. ; Elmore, Joann G. / Clinical predictors of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. In: AIDS. 1998 ; Vol. 12, No. 8. pp. 885-893.
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