Background Despite extensive study, the role of vitamin D in insulin resistance and secretion remains unclear. Objective To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and indices of insulin resistance and secretion in older adults. Methods and Results Among 2134 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study who were free from cardiovascular disease, we measured serum 25(OH)D concentrations in samples collected in 1992-1993. We examined insulin resistance and secretion using Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) estimates cross-sectionally and among 1469 participants who had repeated HOMA measures four years later (1996-1997). In cross-sectional analysis, each 10 ng/mL increment in 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a 0.09 lower adjusted HOMA-IR [95% CI (- 0.17, - 0.02), p = 0.01]. However, baseline 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with change in HOMA-IR over 4 years of follow up (p = 0.48). 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with insulin secretion, as determined by HOMA-β, in either cross-sectional or longitudinal analysis. Conclusions Circulating 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with lower insulin resistance in cross-sectional but not longitudinal analyses. Whether this reflects residual confounding in cross-sectional analyses or the short-term nature of the relationship between vitamin D and insulin sensitivity will require trials with repeated measures of these factors.
- Insulin resistance
- Vitamin D
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism