Chronic PM2.5 exposure and inflammation: Determining sensitive subgroups in mid-life women

Bart Ostro, Brian Malig, Rachel Broadwin, Rupa Basu, Ellen B. Gold, Joyce T. Bromberger, Carol A. Derby, Steven Feinstein, Gail A. Greendale, Elizabeth A. Jackson, Howard M. Kravitz, Karen A. Matthews, Barbara Sternfeld, Kristin Tomey, Robin R. Green, Rochelle Green

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Abstract

Background: Several cohort studies report associations between chronic exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) and cardiovascular mortality. Uncertainty exists about biological mechanisms responsible for this observation, but systemic inflammation has been postulated. In addition, the subgroups susceptible to inflammation have not been fully elucidated. Methods: We investigated whether certain subgroups are susceptible to the effects of long-term exposure to PM2.5 on C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation directly linked to subsequent cardiovascular disease. We used data from the SWAN cohort of 1923 mid-life women with up to five annual repeated measures of CRP. Linear mixed and GEE models accounting for repeated measurements within an individual were used to estimate the effects of prior-year PM2.5 exposure on CRP. We examined CRP as a continuous and as binary outcome for CRP greater than 3. mg/l, a level of clinical significance. Results: We found strong associations between PM2.5 and CRP among several subgroups. For example a 10μg/m3 increase in annual PM2.5 more than doubled the risk of CRP greater than 3mg/l in older diabetics, smokers and the unmarried. Larger effects were also observed among those with low income, high blood pressure, or who were using hormone therapy, with indications of a protective effects for those using statins or consuming moderate amounts of alcohol. Conclusions: In this study, we observed significant associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and CRP in several susceptible subgroups. This suggests a plausible pathway by which exposure to particulate matter may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)168-175
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume132
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

C-Reactive Protein
Inflammation
protein
cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular Diseases
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Particulate Matter
woman
exposure
Blood pressure
Uncertainty
hormone
particulate matter
alcohol
Cohort Studies
blood
Alcohols
income
Hormones
Hypertension

Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • C-reactive protein
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • PM2.5
  • Susceptibility

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Ostro, B., Malig, B., Broadwin, R., Basu, R., Gold, E. B., Bromberger, J. T., ... Green, R. (2014). Chronic PM2.5 exposure and inflammation: Determining sensitive subgroups in mid-life women. Environmental Research, 132, 168-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2014.03.042

Chronic PM2.5 exposure and inflammation : Determining sensitive subgroups in mid-life women. / Ostro, Bart; Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Basu, Rupa; Gold, Ellen B.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Derby, Carol A.; Feinstein, Steven; Greendale, Gail A.; Jackson, Elizabeth A.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Matthews, Karen A.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Tomey, Kristin; Green, Robin R.; Green, Rochelle.

In: Environmental Research, Vol. 132, 2014, p. 168-175.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ostro, B, Malig, B, Broadwin, R, Basu, R, Gold, EB, Bromberger, JT, Derby, CA, Feinstein, S, Greendale, GA, Jackson, EA, Kravitz, HM, Matthews, KA, Sternfeld, B, Tomey, K, Green, RR & Green, R 2014, 'Chronic PM2.5 exposure and inflammation: Determining sensitive subgroups in mid-life women', Environmental Research, vol. 132, pp. 168-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2014.03.042
Ostro, Bart ; Malig, Brian ; Broadwin, Rachel ; Basu, Rupa ; Gold, Ellen B. ; Bromberger, Joyce T. ; Derby, Carol A. ; Feinstein, Steven ; Greendale, Gail A. ; Jackson, Elizabeth A. ; Kravitz, Howard M. ; Matthews, Karen A. ; Sternfeld, Barbara ; Tomey, Kristin ; Green, Robin R. ; Green, Rochelle. / Chronic PM2.5 exposure and inflammation : Determining sensitive subgroups in mid-life women. In: Environmental Research. 2014 ; Vol. 132. pp. 168-175.
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abstract = "Background: Several cohort studies report associations between chronic exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) and cardiovascular mortality. Uncertainty exists about biological mechanisms responsible for this observation, but systemic inflammation has been postulated. In addition, the subgroups susceptible to inflammation have not been fully elucidated. Methods: We investigated whether certain subgroups are susceptible to the effects of long-term exposure to PM2.5 on C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation directly linked to subsequent cardiovascular disease. We used data from the SWAN cohort of 1923 mid-life women with up to five annual repeated measures of CRP. Linear mixed and GEE models accounting for repeated measurements within an individual were used to estimate the effects of prior-year PM2.5 exposure on CRP. We examined CRP as a continuous and as binary outcome for CRP greater than 3. mg/l, a level of clinical significance. Results: We found strong associations between PM2.5 and CRP among several subgroups. For example a 10μg/m3 increase in annual PM2.5 more than doubled the risk of CRP greater than 3mg/l in older diabetics, smokers and the unmarried. Larger effects were also observed among those with low income, high blood pressure, or who were using hormone therapy, with indications of a protective effects for those using statins or consuming moderate amounts of alcohol. Conclusions: In this study, we observed significant associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and CRP in several susceptible subgroups. This suggests a plausible pathway by which exposure to particulate matter may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.",
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T2 - Determining sensitive subgroups in mid-life women

AU - Ostro, Bart

AU - Malig, Brian

AU - Broadwin, Rachel

AU - Basu, Rupa

AU - Gold, Ellen B.

AU - Bromberger, Joyce T.

AU - Derby, Carol A.

AU - Feinstein, Steven

AU - Greendale, Gail A.

AU - Jackson, Elizabeth A.

AU - Kravitz, Howard M.

AU - Matthews, Karen A.

AU - Sternfeld, Barbara

AU - Tomey, Kristin

AU - Green, Robin R.

AU - Green, Rochelle

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N2 - Background: Several cohort studies report associations between chronic exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) and cardiovascular mortality. Uncertainty exists about biological mechanisms responsible for this observation, but systemic inflammation has been postulated. In addition, the subgroups susceptible to inflammation have not been fully elucidated. Methods: We investigated whether certain subgroups are susceptible to the effects of long-term exposure to PM2.5 on C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation directly linked to subsequent cardiovascular disease. We used data from the SWAN cohort of 1923 mid-life women with up to five annual repeated measures of CRP. Linear mixed and GEE models accounting for repeated measurements within an individual were used to estimate the effects of prior-year PM2.5 exposure on CRP. We examined CRP as a continuous and as binary outcome for CRP greater than 3. mg/l, a level of clinical significance. Results: We found strong associations between PM2.5 and CRP among several subgroups. For example a 10μg/m3 increase in annual PM2.5 more than doubled the risk of CRP greater than 3mg/l in older diabetics, smokers and the unmarried. Larger effects were also observed among those with low income, high blood pressure, or who were using hormone therapy, with indications of a protective effects for those using statins or consuming moderate amounts of alcohol. Conclusions: In this study, we observed significant associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and CRP in several susceptible subgroups. This suggests a plausible pathway by which exposure to particulate matter may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

AB - Background: Several cohort studies report associations between chronic exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) and cardiovascular mortality. Uncertainty exists about biological mechanisms responsible for this observation, but systemic inflammation has been postulated. In addition, the subgroups susceptible to inflammation have not been fully elucidated. Methods: We investigated whether certain subgroups are susceptible to the effects of long-term exposure to PM2.5 on C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation directly linked to subsequent cardiovascular disease. We used data from the SWAN cohort of 1923 mid-life women with up to five annual repeated measures of CRP. Linear mixed and GEE models accounting for repeated measurements within an individual were used to estimate the effects of prior-year PM2.5 exposure on CRP. We examined CRP as a continuous and as binary outcome for CRP greater than 3. mg/l, a level of clinical significance. Results: We found strong associations between PM2.5 and CRP among several subgroups. For example a 10μg/m3 increase in annual PM2.5 more than doubled the risk of CRP greater than 3mg/l in older diabetics, smokers and the unmarried. Larger effects were also observed among those with low income, high blood pressure, or who were using hormone therapy, with indications of a protective effects for those using statins or consuming moderate amounts of alcohol. Conclusions: In this study, we observed significant associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and CRP in several susceptible subgroups. This suggests a plausible pathway by which exposure to particulate matter may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

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KW - PM2.5

KW - Susceptibility

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