Ritanserin was tested in the clinic as a serotonin receptor inverse agonist but recently emerged as a novel kinase inhibitor with potential applications in cancer. Here, we discovered that ritanserin induced apoptotic cell death of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells via a serotonin-independent mechanism. We used quantitative chemical proteomics to reveal a ritanserin-dependent kinase network that includes key mediators of lipid [diacylglycerol kinase α, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase β] and protein [feline encephalitis virus-related kinase, rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (RAF)] signaling, metabolism [eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-α kinase 4], and DNA damage response [tousled-like kinase 2] to broadly kill lung tumor cell types. Whereas ritanserin exhibited polypharmacology in NSCLC proteomes, this compound showed unexpected specificity for c-RAF in the SCLC subtype, with negligible activity against other kinases mediating mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Here we show that ritanserin blocks c-RAF but not B-RAF activation of established oncogenic signaling pathways in live cells, providing evidence in support of c-RAF as a key target mediating its anticancer activity. Given the role of c-RAF activation in RAS-mutated cancers resistant to clinical B-RAF inhibitors, our findings may have implications in overcoming resistance mechanisms associated with c-RAF biology. The unique target landscape combined with acceptable safety profiles in humans provides new opportunities for repositioning ritanserin in cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine