Background & Aims: Evidence suggests that mesalamine-based anti-inflammatory medicines may prevent colorectal cancer (CRC) in ulcerative colitis (UC). If mesalamine exerts its chemopreventive effect by its anti-inflammatory activity, then other medications that reduce colitis activity also should possess chemopreventive properties. Our aim was to determine the effect of the immunomodulators 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) and azathioprine (AZA) in preventing the development of dysplasia or CRC in UC. Methods: Patients with UC who underwent a surveillance colonoscopy in 1996-1997 were identified from a gastrointestinal pathology database. A proportional hazards analysis assessing 6MP/AZA use as a time-changing covariate was performed to evaluate the effect of 6MP/AZA on: (1) progression to any neoplasia (low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, or CRC), and (2) progression to advanced neoplasia (high-grade dysplasia or CRC). Results: A total of 315 subjects met inclusion criteria and were followed for an average of 8 years from their first surveillance examination. There were no significant differences in rates of progression to advanced neoplasia or to any neoplasia between 6MP/AZA users and never-users by log-rank testing. The proportional hazards analysis resulted in hazard ratios of 1.06 (95% confidence interval, .59-1.93) and 1.30 (95% confidence interval, .45-3.75) when considering the effect of exposure to 6MP/AZA on progression to any or to advanced neoplasia, respectively. The results were unaffected by known potential confounders. Conclusions: In UC patients with no initial history of dysplasia, 6MP/AZA use appears to have little or no effect on the rate of neoplastic transformation in the colon. Importantly, the use of 6MP/AZA did not increase malignant transformation in UC.
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