Two novel N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists with unique chemical structures, EAA-090 (2-[8,9-dioxo-2, 6-diazabicyclo[5.2.0] non-1(7)-en2-yl] ethylphosphonic acid) and EAB-318 (R-α-amino-5-chloro-1-(phosphonomethyl)- 1H-benzimidazole-2-propanoic acid hydrochloride), were compared with CGS-19755 (Selfotel) in ligand binding, electrophysiology, and neuroprotection assays. CGS-19755, EAA-090 and EAB-318 inhibited [3H]3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4- yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid binding to NMDA receptors with IC50 values of 55, 28, and 7.9 nM, respectively. All three compounds decreased the duration of spontaneous synaptic currents and inhibited NMDA-activated currents in rat hippocampal neurons. IC50 values for inhibition of current induced by 10 μM NMDA were 795, 477, and 69 nM for CGS-19755, EAA-090, and EAB-318, respectively. The NMDA antagonists protected chick embryo retina slices and cultured rat hippocampal and cortical neurons from glutamate- and NMDA-induced neurotoxicity. In experiments in which different NMDA receptor splice variants and subtypes were expressed in Xenopus oocytes, all three antagonists preferentially blocked NMDA-elicited currents mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NR)1 splice variants containing the N-terminal insertion. They also favored NR2A- versus NR2B- or NR2C-containing NMDA receptors, with EAA-090 showing the greatest selectivity. EAA-090 was 10 times more potent at blocking NR2A- versus NR2B- or NR2C-containing NMDA receptors. In addition to being the most potent NMDA antagonist, EAB-318 inhibited α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainate receptors. The combination of NMDA and AMPA/kainate block enabled EAB-318 to protect neurons against ischemia induced cell death.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|State||Published - Aug 1 2004|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine