Changes in glomerular filtration rate and clinical course after sequential doses of carboplatin in children with embryonal brain tumors undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation

Yasser Elborai, Mohammad Almutereen, Ossama M. Maher, Hanafy Hafez, Michelle A. Lee, Leslie Lehmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Treatment for malignant embryonal brain tumors in young children usually employs cycles of standardly dosed cisplatinum followed by high-dose carboplatinum-containing conditioning with single or tandem autologous stem cell rescue (HDC-ASCR). High-dose carboplatin is potentially nephrotoxic, and additive platinum exposure may acutely impact renal function. Aiming to determine if decrease in renal function during conditioning assessed prior to each carboplatin dose was associated with acute increases in creatinine, requirement for dialysis or transplant-related mortality (TRM). This was a retrospective study of consecutive patients with medulloblastoma (n = 15) / atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT, n = 5) receiving HDC-ASCR. Fifteen patients underwent 1 HDC-ASCR (carboplatin × 3 doses/ etoposide/ thiotepa) and 5 patients underwent at least 1 of 3 planned tandem HDC-ASCR (carboplatin × 2 doses/ thiotepa). Renal function was assessed by daily creatinine and nuclear medicine glomerular filtration rate (GFR)/ creatinine clearance before each carboplatin dose. Results: In this cohort of 20 patients, 3 had doses of carboplatin omitted due to decreases in GFR: 1 did not develop nephrotoxicity, 1 experienced nephrotoxicity without need for dialysis, and 1 required dialysis temporarily but recovered renal function. Two patients did not have GFR changes but developed post-ASCR renal failure requiring dialysis and TRM. Conclusion: Daily assessment of renal function by GFR, prior each dose of carboplatin during HDC-ASCR, will help in protecting the kidney in heavily treated population of oncology/HSCT patients. Although the study had a small number of patients which is a major limitation of the study, but it points to a serious transplant-related morbidity and mortality. So, larger scale studies are needed to clarify the best approach to carboplatin dosing to insure the optimal balance between efficacy and toxicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9
JournalJournal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
Volume32
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2020

Keywords

  • Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT)
  • Brain tumor
  • Carboplatin
  • GFR
  • Renal toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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