Objectives: Published human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine trials indicate efficacy is strongest for those naive to the vaccine-types. However, few high-risk young women have been followed and cervical HPV has been the predominant outcome measure. Methods: We collected cervical and anal swabs, as well as oral rinse specimens from 645 sexually active inner-city young females attending a large adolescent health-clinic in New York City that offers free care and HPV vaccination. Specimens were tested for HPV-DNA using a MY09/MY11-PCR system. Type-specific prevalence of HPV at each anatomic site was compared for individuals by vaccination dose using generalized estimating equation logistic regression models. Results: The majority of subjects reported being of non-Caucasian (92%) and/or Hispanic ethnicity (61%). Median age was 18 years (range:14-20). All had practiced vaginal sex, a third (33%) practiced anal sex, and most (77%) had also engaged in oral sex. At enrollment, 21% had not received the vaccine and 51% had received three doses. Prevalent HPV infection at enrollment was detected in 54% of cervical, 42% of anal and 20% of oral specimens, with vaccine types present in 7%, 6% and 1% of specimens, respectively. Comparing prevalence for vaccine types, the detection of HPV in the cervix of vaccinated compared to unvaccinated adolescents was significantly reduced: HPV6/11 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.19, 95%CI:0.06-0.75), HPV16 (OR = 0.31, 95%CI:0.11-0.88) and HPV18 (OR = 0.14, 95%CI:0.03-0.75). For anal HPV, the risk of detecting vaccine types HPV6/11 (OR = 0.27, 95%CI:0.10-0.72) and HPV18(OR = 0.12, 95%CI:0.01-1.16) were significantly reduced for vaccinated adolescents however, the risk for HPV16 was not significantly decreased (OR = 0.63, 95%CI:0.18-2.20). Conclusion: HPV Prevalence is extremely high in inner-city female adolescents. Administration of the HPV vaccine reduced the risk for cervical HPV; however continued follow-up is required to assess the protection for HPV at all sites in young women with high exposure.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)