Cerebral Microhemorrhage and Purpuric Rash in COVID-19: The Case for a Secondary Microangiopathy

Aaron Shoskes, Ibrahim Migdady, Anthony Fernandez, Paul Ruggieri, Alexander Rae-Grant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Introduction: Since the emergence of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, multiple neurologic complications in infected patients have been reported. Despite these reports, the mechanism of COVID-19 nervous system injury is not well understood. We report the case of a COVID-19 patient with diffuse microhemorrhages on brain MRI, positive anticardiolipin antibodies, and purpuric rash with biopsy showing a thrombotic vasculopathy, all features suggestive of secondary microangiopathy. Case Report: A 69-year-old male with history of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and hypothyroidism presented with one week of dyspnea, cough, diarrhea, and fevers. Chest x-ray demonstrated bibasilar consolidations and nasopharyngeal reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. He had subsequent respiratory decline requiring intubation the day after admission. He developed a truncal morbilliform rash and diffuse purpura, a biopsy of which showed small dermal blood vessels with intraluminal microthrombi consistent with thrombotic vasculopathy. He was found to have elevated aCL IgM and IgG and equivocal lupus anticoagulant study. Brain MRI obtained for persistent encephalopathy showed innumerable areas of susceptibility weighted imaging changes throughout the bilateral juxtacortical white matter, corpus callosum, basal ganglia, and brainstem, as well as multiple small areas of FLAIR hyperintensities, consistent with microhemorrhage Discussion: While there have been several reported cases of neurologic manifestations of COVID-19, the pathophysiology may not be related to neurotropism of the virus itself. The new development of antiphospholipid antibodies and thrombotic vasculopathy in dermal blood vessels in this patient suggest a secondary microangiopathy potentially related to a virally-induced inflammatory state.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number105111
JournalJournal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases
Volume29
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Antiphospholipid antibodies Microangiopathy
  • COVID-19
  • Cerebral Microhemorrhage
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Rehabilitation
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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