Cementum, Pulp, Periodontal Ligament, and Bone Response After Direct Injury With Orthodontic Anchorage Screws: A Histomorphologic Study in an Animal Model

Volong Dao, Rahul Renjen, Hari S. Prasad, Michael D. Rohrer, Anthony L. Maganzini, Richard A. Kraut

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: To assess the histologic response of the periodontium, cementum, and pulp after intentional root injury with titanium screws. Materials and Methods: Three female beagle dogs were used, and a total of 60 self-drilling/self-tapping miniscrews were manually inserted into the maxilla and the mandible with the intention of placement in close proximity or in direct contact with the roots. Digital radiographs were taken to select the sites with root injuries. After a 3-month period, the animals were killed and serial nondecalcified histologic sections were obtained with the miniscrew in place. Results: Sixteen sites with significant root injury were identified. Four sites presented with cementum abrasion, 7 sites had dentin penetration up to 50% of the diameter of the screw, and 5 sites had miniscrew penetration into the pulp space with root fragmentation. At all damaged sites, continuous cementum repair could be observed. There was no evidence of external resorption or pulpal necrosis and/or inflammatory infiltrate. Point ankylosis was seen only in cases of severe injury with root fragmentation. Finally, woven bone was present along the miniscrew threads. Conclusion: When titanium screws penetrate root cementum or dentin, pulpal necrosis and/or inflammation was not observed at 12 weeks in an animal model. Cementum regenerates at every injury site, but ankylosis can occur with root fragmentation. Woven bone is present at the screw-bone interface even with root contact suggesting osteointegration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2440-2445
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Volume67
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology

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